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Text A. James Watt

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James Watt, a famous inventor and mechanical engi­neer, was born on January 19, 1736, in Scotland. He worked as a mathematical-instrument maker from the age of 19 and soon became interested in improving the steam engine, which was used at that time to pump out water from mines.

Watt is known for his improvements of the steam engine. He determined the properties of steam, especially the relation of its density to its temperature and pressure, and designed a separate condensing chamber for the steam engine that prevented large losses of steam in the cylinder. For this device and other improvements on steam engine Watt received his first patent in 1769.

Watt continued his research and patented rotary engine for driving various types of machinery; the double-action engine, in which steam is admitted alternately into both ends of the cylinder; and the steam indicator, which records the steam pressure in the engine. He retired from the firm manufacturing steam engines in 1800 and devoted himself entirely to research work.

In 1788 Watt invented the centrifugal or flyball gov­ernor, which automatically regulated the speed of an engine. It uses the feedback principle of a servomecha-nism, linking output to input, which is the basic concept of automation. The watt, the unit of power, was named in his honour.

Questions:

What was James Watt?

What were the inventions made by him for which he received patents?

Text B. Naval Engineering

Naval architects are engineers who design and supervise construction of ships. Ships must be designed and built so that they are safe, stable, strong, and fast enough to perform the type of work intended for them. A naval architect must be familiar with the variety of techniques of modern shipbuilding.

Marine engineering is a specialized branch of mechanical engineering devoted to the design and operation of systems, both mechanical and electrical, needed to propel a ship. Engineers in this field develop diesel engines and steam turbines that provide enough power to move the ship at the required speed.


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  1. Text A. James Prescott Joule

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