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NOT GIVEN (NG) if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this.
6. It is important to understand how the first audiences reacted to the cinema.
7. The Lumière Brothers’ film about the train was one of the greatest films ever made.
8. Cinema presents a biased view of other countries.
9. Storylines were important in early cinematography.
1.3. Choose the correct answer (А, В, С or D) which fits best according to the passage.
10. The writer refers to the film of the train in order to demonstrate
A the simplicity of early films.
В the impact of early films.
С how short early films were.
D how imaginative early films were.
11. In Tarkovsky’s opinion, the attraction of the cinema is that it
A aims to impress its audience.
В tells stories better than books.
С illustrates the passing of time.
D describes familiar events.
12. When cinema first began, people thought that
A it would always tell stories.
В it should be used in fairgrounds.
С the audiences were unappreciative.
D its future was uncertain.
13. What is the best title for this passage?
A The rise of the cinema star.
В Cinema and novels compared.
С The domination of Hollywood.
D The power of the big screen.
2. For questions 1-5, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0). Mind that all the answers to 1-5 require prefixes.
THE FILMING OF RAILWAY
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3. Read the passage below. For questions 1-5, choose the best option (A, B, C or D) which fits best according to what you read.
THE PATHÉ STUDIOS
A hundred years or so ago cinema was making its hesitant entry into the world. In 1889 the British photographer William Friese-Greene invented a moving picture camera, and, two years later, Thomas Edison patented his cinematograph showing men at work, performing animals and dancing girls. In February of that year Louis Lumière and his brother Auguste came up with a cheaper competitor. Among the thousands who flocked to see the Lumières’ invention in action in Paris was 32-year-old Charles Pathé. He was so impressed with it that he talked his brothers into sinking the family inheritance into a film company. The result was the creation of France’s most illustrious film studios. By 1907 the Pathé company had grown enormously and had studios throughout Europe and the USA. What seems amazing now, when Holliwood dominates the world, is that a French company established such a foothold in the US creating a virtual monopoly in the film industry by distributing its own films there as well as hiring out its studios. But if Pathé was big in the USA, it was a giant in Europe. The year before World War I broke out, Pathé had made no fewer than 300 films. War, however, dealt the company a heavy blow. Shortages of staff and film stock cut output by almost half in 1914, and by 1918 Pathé’s output had fallen to 63 films. From then on Pathé never went back to the mass production methods of its earlier years, concentrating instead on fewer films of greater length and higher quality.
1. In the USA, the Pathé studios were
Aunsuccessful and could not compete.
Bdominant in the film industry.
C unable to make many films.
D bigger than the ones in Europe.
2. After the war, the Pathé company
Anever made another film.
B changed its methods of mass production in film-making.
Cshifted its emphasis to a higher caliber of film-makung.
D did not concentrate only on film-making.
3. What does the author tell us about the Lumière’s cinematograph?
AIt was invented in 1891.
BIt won the first prize in a competition.
CIt was more expensive than Edison’s.
DIt showed men at work, performing animals and dancing girls.
4. According to the passage, what effect did World War I have on the Pathé studios?
A Bombs heavily damaged the studios.
BFilm production was made impossible.
CMoney for paying staff became unavailable.
D Production was drastically reduced.
5. What did Charles Pathé persuade his brothers to do?
A invent their own movie-making camera.
Bgo to see the Lumières’ invention in Paris.
Cinvest the family’s wealth in a film company.
D travel to the USA to see the studios there.
4. Watch a programme called ‘CINEMA AND ITS ANCESTORS’ where Tom Gunning, a film historian, examines an important precursor to modern film: the magic lantern.
4.1. While watching finish the sentence:
The magic lantern is a device …
4.2. Are these statements true (T), false (F) or not given (NG)?
1. There has been some debate about who the original inventor of the magic lantern is, but the most widely accepted theory is that the device was developed by a monk who used it to frighten his fellow monks by casting an image of the devil on the wall of his dining room.
2. The motion picture used the same scientific principles of the magic lantern to project an image.
3. Méliès became interested in film after seeing a demonstration of the Lumière brothers’ cinematograph.
4. Because of his ability to manipulate and transform reality through cinematography, Méliès is referred to as the First ‘Cinemagician’.
5. Life of an American Fireman is notable for its synthesis of numerous innovations in film technique which surpassed the series of lantern slides that had told the life of Bob the Fireman.
4.3. Listen to the programme again and complete the sentences with the exact words you hear.
In the 18th century various practitioners thought of ways to either manipulate the slides mechanically or to combine them with (1) ………. possibilities within the lantern.
It was realized that one could project an image through a lens on to a surface, enlarge it in that way and make it have this kind of (2) ………. quality, of very strong vivid (3) ………. quality.
Some people found rather (4) ………. the images that weren’t in a book or on (5) ………., but just in thin air projected on a surface.
The magic lantern (6) ………. almost seamlessly into the motion picture which was seen as a kind of improvement.
The magic lantern showed and portrayed stories (7) ………. into a series of still images.
With the introduction of motion pictures new possibilities of storytelling appeared usually though almost (8) ………. the magic lantern.
5. For questions 1-6, read the following text and then choose from the list A-I given below the best phrase to fill each of the spaces. Each correct phrase may only be used once. Some of the suggested answers do not fit at all.
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