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| | | | | | | | | | ³ | | | | | | ij | | | | | ̲ | ' | | | | ' | | | | | ˳ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 㳿 | | | Գ | Գ | Գ | Գ | ճ |

THE PHONETIC STRUCTURE OP THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

Plan:

1.The syllabic structure of English words

2. The accentual structure of word

3. The intonational structure of English sentences.

 

The English language, as a whole, is not s chaotic formation. It is a complex unity of different aspects of language which are systemic in character. English consists, for example, of a definite word stock which may be subdivided according to different classifications and which presents a certain structure' semantically and morphologically. It also contains a system of forms and syntactical combinations.

The English phonetic structure (or pronunciation) isalso systemic in character. It is made of the following com-
ponents:

(1)the syllabic structure of English words,

(2)the accentual structure of words, and

(3)the inconational structure of English sentences.
The systemic character of English phonemes is reflected in various classifications. First of all English phonemes are divided into two fundamental sound types - consonants and vowels. They are further subdivided according to the principles of vowel and consonant classification.

The phonemic component includes not only the system of English phonemes but also the combination of their allo-phones, which occur in words and at the junction of words. The systemic character of this component means that phonemes and their allophones may occur only in definite positions in words. For example, the phonemes /, æ, ٨, j, h, w/ never occur at the end of English words, whereas the phonemes /u, η/ never occur at the beginning of English words.

Definite allophones of phonemes may occur only in definite positions. This phenomenon is called distribution of allophones .

e.g. /twais/ - the rounded allophone of the /t/ phoneme is used before /w/;

/eitө/ - the dental allophone of the /t/phoneme is used tefore /ө/;

/trai/ - the post-alveolar allophone of ' the /t/

phoneme is used before //;

/'ritn/ - the nasally released allophone of the /t/




phoneme is used before /n/;

/ti:i/ - the strongly aspirated allophone of the /t/ phoneme is used before /i:/, etc.

The same can be said about combinations of consonants and vowels. Their usage is determined by some regular rules of the language. For example, the combination of consonants /tl, dl, tn, dn/ never occurs at the beginning of English words. They may occur at the end or in the middle of words.

To the phonemic component also belong different methods of joining sounds together in words and at the junction of words. Wemay speak of the following four types of sound transitions in English:

CV transitions, as in /ti:/, /mai/, /ka:/, etc.

VC transitions, as in /it/, //, /٨/, etc.

CC transitions, s in /lukt/, /in ðә/, /trai/, etc.

VV transitions, s in /mai 'a:nt,', /ði æ1/, /wi ': I/,etc.

CV transitions in English are characterized by aspirated articulation of the voiceless plosive consonants /p, t, / before a stressed vowel.

e.g. /tu:/, /'taipiη/, /tounәgr æm/, /ta:sk/;

/'pә:sn/, /'peiә/, /'!pl:tә/, /:s/;

/keik/, /kout/,/k:m/, / kaindli/, etc.

VC transitions are reflected in syllable division of English words. The short stressed vowels are always checked. They can only occur in closed type of syllable, as in the following: /'men-i/, /'st٨d-i/, /'bul-it/, /'n٨ө-iη/, /'lit-1/, /'dæd-i/, /'ht-ist/, etc.

Loss of plosion may serve an instance for CC transitions, as in Octobe, effect, helped, strict, next day, wanted to come, shookeeper, blackboard, a word before, etc. Compare the similar Kazakh combinations of two plosives, which are pronounced with two plosions, as in: ө ққ, қ қ, etc.

In VV transitions we may have two different ways of joining vowels, with and without the glottal stop between them.

e.g. /wi a-/ - /wi l?a:/,

/mai ٨ηkl/ - /mai .٨ηkl/,

/'ði ould 'mæn/ - /ð 1 ?ould 'mæn/, etc.

The second component of the phonetic system of English is the syllabic structure of its words in isolation and in phrases and sentences. This component may be viewed from two points - its syllable formation and its syllable division, (One term "syllabification" is often used for both of them.)

Different languages may differ from one another in syllabification. The difference lies in the fact that some speech sounds may be syllabic in different positions.

The consonants /m, n, 1, η/ in English are syllabic words like /'riðm/., /'litl/, /'i:tn/, /'beikη' and egz/,etc. In Kazakh such combinations of consonants are impossible.

Differences in syllable division include differences in the position of the syllabic boundary. Compare: in English /'n-i/, in Kazakh /-/.

The third component of the phonetic system of English is the accentual structure of its words. It may be studied from three aspects:

the physical nature of word accent,

the position of word accent in different words,

the degree of word accent.

 

Languages may differ in the accentual structure of words

 

 

Lecture

It is fairly obvious that words are seldom pronounced by themselves, as vocabulary items. They are usually arranged into sentences in accordance with the grammatical and phonetic structures of the languages. And, as we know, one of the components of the phonetic structure of a 1anguage is its intonation. Intonation is the main factor that turns a word or group of words into a sentence.

Intonation is defined differently by different phoneticians here and abroad. Most foreign linguists consider intonation as variation in voice pitch. For instance, I.Armstrong and I.Ward make it clear that: By Intonation we mean the rise and fall of the pitch of the voice when we speak".

 

 

Lecture

Questions to be discussed:

What is intonation.

The components of intonation.

The functions of intonation.

The phonological oppositions of , speech melody, sentence stress, tempo, rhythm, pauses etc.

It is fairly obvious that words are seldom pronounced by themselves, as vocabulary items. They are usually arranged into sentences in accordance with the grammatical and phonetic structures of the languages. And, as we know, one of the components of the phonetic structure of a 1anguage is its intonation. Intonation is the main factor that turns a word or group of words into a sentence.

Intonation is defined differently by different phoneticians here and abroad. Most foreign linguists consider intonation as variation in voice pitch. For instance, I.Armstrong and I.Ward make it clear that: By Intonation we mean the rise and fall of the pitch of the voice when we speak".

Prof.D.Jones expresses his idea of intonation in the following way: "Intonation may te defined as the variations which take place in the pitch of the voice in connected speech, e.i. the variations in the pitch of the musical note produced by the, vibration of the vocal cords".

1)Another British linguist A.C.Gimson also treats intonation as variations of pitch and rises and falls in pitch level.

2)Among British phoneticians we may also mention R.Kingdon, 4)J.D.O'Connor and G.F.Arnold,5) D.Crystal, W.S.Allen 7)and others who share this point of view. They all agree that there is a close connection between intonation and stress.

American descriptivists speak of intonation and stress as different phonetic phenomena. Answering the question about the nature of intonation C.H.Prator writes: "Intonation is the tune of what we say. More specifically, it is the combination of musical tones on which we pronounce the syllables that make our speech. Then C.H.Prator adds that it is closely related to sentence stress.

Quite different in the opinion of the majority of Soviet linguists on the problem of intonation. The leading Soviet phoneticians state that intonation is a complex unity of (1) speech melody, (2) word prominence, (3) tempo, rhythm and pauses, and (4) voice-tamber. Variations in these four serve to express the communicative type of the utterance and the speaker's thoughts, feelings and attitudes towards reality.

The components of intonation all function together, they are inseparable from one another. But it is possible to single them out for the sole purpose of analysis.

Speech melody, or voice pitch is one of the leading components of intonation. It is closely connected with sentence-stress. Each intonation-group 2) may consist of the following sections: prehead, head, body (or scale), nucleus, tail. Graphically it may be represented in the following way:

prehead head body (scale) nucleus tail

There are two significant types of prehead: (1) low . . .(2) high . . . .

The head may be of three types (according to H. Palmer)

(1)Inferior , (2) superior , (3) scandent

There are six main types of body (or scale):(1) regular descending . (2) broken descending-- f ' ' ■

(3) low--- ■ - . . . (4) ascending ' . (5) sliding

(6) scandent_ ' ■

There are eight main types of nuclear tones; (1) high fall

. (2) low fall _ (3) low rise . 4) high rise

, (5) fall-rise ., 7 V . (6) rise-fall (7)

rise-fall-rise . (8) level _____________

The tail may be: (l) despending ~\ . (2) level -\ . . or , (3) ascending , or

The most important section of an intonation-group is the nucleus. It is the essential element. It is the nuclear tone that each intonation-group must have. Without a nuclear tone there may be no intonation-group. All the other sections are non-obligatory.

Different combinations of the nuclei, heads, bodies (scales), preheads and tails produce a great.variety of melodic patterns in English intonation. It is rather, difficult to learn all of them and evidently not necessary, as some melodic patterns express identical meanings and that is why they may be grouped. For this purpose the number of Intonation patterns is reduced to the number of nuclear tones, which are: low fall, high fall, low rise, high rise, fall-rise, rise-fall, rise-fall-rise, level. These nuclear tones when combined with different preheads, heads bodies, and tails lead to a few significant variants in the intonation pattern of English.

Soviet phoneticians also distinguish the so-called terminal tones. Terminal tones are broader unite than nuclei, they indicate a change of pitch at the Junoture of two sentences or sense-groups. Terminal tones are (or may be) realized on the nuclei and the tails. The number of terminal tones is limited to falling, rising, rising-falling and falling-rising. On the contrary, nuclear tones are more varied.

H.A.Gleason distinguishes three terminal tones in American English (he calls them clause-terminals): (1) fading / ^ / - a rapid fall; (2) rising / / - a sudden rapid rise) (3) austained / - / - a prolonged sustained pronunciation.

As far as the pitch levels nithin the intonation-group are concerned American descriptivists call them pitch phonemes and distinguish four such levels: low, mid, high, extra high. The usual pitches of the voice are mid, low and high. The extra high pitch is rarely used.

Closely connected with the pitch component of intonation is sentence-stress. Sentence-stress is a special prominence which is given to one or more words so as to single them out from other words in the same intonation-group or even in the whole sentence.

It is the sentence-stress that determines the pitch of the voice on the accentuated parts of an intonation-group. Modifications in speech melody generally take place within stressed syllables.

In unemphatic speech notional words are usually stressed (nouns, notional verbs, adjectives, numerals, adverbs and some pronouns), whereas form-words are unstressed (articles, prepositions, conjunctions, auxiliary and modal verbs and some pronouns).

The distribution of stresses in emphatic speech may be quite different with form-words stressed and national words unstressed.

Stress may be syntagmatic, syntactic and logical.

Syntagmatic stress is placed on the semantic centre of the sense-group which is the nucleus. For example:

You 'told me to ask her. She has 'never 'been to England. The words "ask" and "England" bear syntagmatic stresses.

Syntactic stress singles out the other semantically important words of the sentence. For instances:

I 'think you'd 'better 'stay home.

The words "think", "better", "stay" are said to have syntactic stress. (The word "home" has syntagmatic stress.)

When the semantic centre ie shifted from the last notional word of the sentence to some other words we get logical stress. For example: She turned away in silence. He's got a new job.

Ann ought to have a doctor. Where does Mike live?

In the above sentences the words she", "new", "ought", "Mike" have logical stresses.

Tempo, rhythm and pauses are considered to be temporal components of intonation.

Tempo is the rate, or duration of speech. It may be slow, normal or quick. Through tempo we appreciate the relative importance of sentences and' their sense-groups. The more important parts of a sentence are pronounced at a slow tempo, the less important ones are said quickly.

Tempo is closely connected with rhythm. Our speech is subdivided rhythmically into units. Speech rhythm may be defined as a regular recurrence of stressed and unstressed syllables. Rhythmic characteristics of speech have been looked into by people for a long time. "Examples of Shakespeare's prose, ... all show that, while the English language may have changed to a certain extent in form and pronunciation and idiom, its speech rhythm has remained unaltered for throe hundred and fifty years".

Rhythm is closely connected with stress. Sense-groups in English are divided into rhythmical groups. Each rhythmical group consists of a stressed syllable alone, or combined with one or more unstressed syllables attached to it. For example:

I think it is impossible to come at once.

In this sentence there are four rhythmical groups:

the first is: I 'think it is im ( _ j____);

the second is: 'possible to ( _ _ );

the third is: come at ( );

the fourth is: 'once ( i ).

The length of the rhythmical groups of this sentence varies from one to five syllable. Each rhythmical group should last approximately the same time.

Pauses are closely connected with other components of intonation. Between intonation-groups there may be pauses of different lengths. At the end of a sentence the pause is long. It is indicated with a double vertical bar / /. A pause between clauses is short, it is indicated with a single vertical bar / /. There is a non-obligatory pause between parts of the sentence. It is a very short one and is indicated with a wavy vertical line / /.

The last component of intonation is voice-tamber, or voice quality. It is a common knowledge that sentences may be pronounced with different voice colouring expressing all shades, of emotions, such as joy, happiness, sadness, irony, indifference, indignation, hostility, and many others. Voice-tamber is connected with the pitch of the voice and the tempo of speech.

We do not know anything about the physical nature of this phenomenon, because the voice-tamber component has not been investigated at all.

All the components of intonation exist and develop together. English intonation as a whole carries important information and like all other phonetic phenomena (phoneme, syllable, accent) intonation also fulfils three main functions: constitutive, distinctive, recognitive. (See also 3.16. 4.21. Part Two and 9.17. Part One).

The constitutive function of intonation consists in the fact that:

1) each syllable of each section of an intonation-group has certain pitch and cannot exist without it;

2) the end of an intoration-group 'is marked by a change of pitch direction or pitch level. (This constitutive function is often called sentence-delimiting function.);

3) each intonation-group must have at least one prominent word which is pronounced with sentence-stress;

4) an intonation-group cannot exist without the temporal component either, because each intonation-group is pronounced at a certain tempo, it has its own rhythm, the end of an intonation-group is indicated by pause, etc.

All these requisites prove that intonation (or rather all its components) fulfils the constitutive function. No sentence can exist without intonation. (Intonation is present in any written sentence as well.)

The most important is the distinctive function of intonation which manifests itself in the fact that intonation as a whole is capable of differentiating one sense-group or sentence from another sense-group or sentence. The role of different components of intonation in differentiating sentences is not of equal importance, though. Some components play the leading role, while others play a subsidiary role.

The distinctive function of intonation is most vividly observed in phonological oppositions. The number of phonological oppositions is quite considerable. They may be achieved within each component of intonation, i.e. within the speech melody, within the sentence-stress, within the temporal component, and within the voice-tamber (or voice quality),

Consequently, the comparison of different types of speech melody, sentence-stress, tempo, rhythm, pauses, etc. may produce the following phonological oppositions:

 

falling tones vs. rising tones;

low falling tones vs. high falling tones;

low rising tones vs. high rising tones;

(1) low falling tones vs. falling-rising tones;

(2) low falling tones vs. rising-falling tones;

(3) regular descending body vi . low (or ascending) body;

(4) regular descending body vi . sliding body;

(8)regular descending body ve. scandent body;

(9)low prehead vs. high prehead;

(10)presence vs. absence of sentence-stress;

(11)presence vs. absence of pause, etc.

These phonological oppositions are illustrated below by some examples with minor explanations.

 

FALLING TONES vs. RISING TONES

Falling tones generally express finality, the categoric nature of the utterance, its independence and greater semantic weight.

Rising tones on the contrary express non-finality, the non-categoric nature of the utterance, its dependence and smaller semantic weight. For example:

(a) A categoric statement vs. a non-categoric statement:

I 'think you ought to apologize, (categoric),

I 'think you 'ought to apologize, (non-categoric);

(b) A categoric command vs. a polite request:

'Come along! (a ce tegoric command),

Come along! (a polite request);

(b) A simple categoric statement vs. a general question:

She was glad to 'find the key. (a statement),

She was 'glad to find the key? (a general question);

(d) A statement of fact,vs.' an exclamations:

We've passed our driving tests, (a statement),

We've passed our driving tests! (an exclamation);

(e) Ageneral question vs. an exclamation!

'isn't it wonderful? (a general question),

'isn't it wonderful! (an exclamation);

(f) An alternative question vs. a general question;

'Do you want some tea\ or coffee? (an alternative question),

Do you 'want some tea or coffee? (a general question, meaning "Do you want a drink?"). In the last case there is also another opposition of presence vs. absence of pause after the word "tea".

An unemphatic imperative vs. an emphatic imperative:

Let me show you how to do it. (unemphatic),

Let me show you how to do it. (emphatic);

(c) An unemphatic exclamation vs. an emphatic exclamation:

'Such a selfish 'young .man!unemphatic),

'Such a selfish young man! (emphatic).

LOW PREHEAD vs. HIGH PREHEAD

The low prehead indicates that the initial unstressed syllables are unimportant. The high prehead fulfils a clearly emphatic function.

(a) An unemphatic statement vs. an emphatic statement:

He 'will be surprised. (unemphatic),

He will be surprised, (emphatic) '

(b) An unemphatic imperative vs. an emphatic imperative:

Do tell me about it. (unemphatic),

Do tell me about it. (emphatic) '

(c) An unemphatic exclamation vs. an emphatic exclamation:

'So long, old chap, (unemphatic),

"So long, old chap, (emphatic)

PRESENCE vs. ABSENCE OF SENTENCE-STRESS

Stressed words in a sentence are semantically important, unstressed words are semantically non-important. The degree of sentence-stress indicates the semantic weight of different words.
The position of the last sentence-stress determines the communicative centre of the utterance.

(a) An apposition vs. a direct address:

This is my 'niece Lucy, (an apposition),

This is my niece, Lucy, (a direct address)

b) Oppositions which are based on shifting the communicative centre of utterances:

His message 'reached me in Moscow, (an answer to the question: "Where did his

message reach you?"),

His 'message reached me in Moscow, (an answer to the question: "Whom did his message reach in Moscow?"),

His"message reached me in Moscow, (an answer to the question: "What reached

me in Moscow?),

His message reached me in Moscow, (an answer to the question: "Whose message reached me in Moscow?").

 

PRES1MCE vs. ABSENCE OF PAUSE

Different positions of pauses in sentences may differentiate one meaning from another. For instance:

"One of the travellers," says Mr .Michael Collins , "was calm,| almost indifferent, throughout.|

One of the 'travellers says Mr.Michael "Collins| was calm, 'almost indifferent, throughout.

He would have his coffee and roll in the morning.

He would 'have his coffee) and roll in the morning.

The pons| raise meat. - The sun'e rays meet.

There was "no love Lost between them. (They loved each other.),

There was 'no love lost between them. (They hated each other.)

There may be some other oppositions as well which are based on different tempo in uttering a sentence and consequently on different rhythm, or on different voice-tamber (which R.Kingdon calls "voice quality" ), etc.

The above oppositions prove most vividly that intonation may distinguish one communicative type of a sentence from another and it may also express different attitudes of the speakers towards reality.

The third function of intonation is its recognitive function. It consists in the use of the right intonation pattern in the sentence. When a wrong intonation pattern is used we may get two kinds of mistakes: phonological (or tonemic) and phonetic (or allotonic). (See also 9.20. Part One and .18.,4,24. Part Two.)

If the right intonation pattern is substituted by a wrong one (also existent in the language) we have a phonological mistake which leads to misunderstanding. In this case the distinctive function is violsted. For example:

 

Correct Wrong

intonation pattern intonation pattern

A person wants to ex-
press his genuine Thank you ! Thank you!
gratitude.

Whose watch is My watch is being My watch is being

being repaired repaired. repaired.

 

Phonoligical mistakes may lead to possible embarrassment.

If the correct intonation pattern is substituted by one non-existent in the language we speak of a phonetic mistake. Forexample:

 

Correct intonation pattern Wrong intonayion pattern

 

He sayed at home.

 

Are you ready?

 

Have you read the book?

 

and so on and so on and so on

 

in a week or s in a week so in a week so

in a month or two in a month or two in a month or two

a newspaper or smth. a newspaper or smth a newspaper or smth

Phonetic mistakes violate the recognitive function of intonation.

The violation of tie recognitive function leads to the following: (1)wrong intonation patterns produce a strong foreign accent; (2) they produce a comic impression upon a foreigner; (3)wrong intonation patterns hamper the process of communication. (See also 3.1B., 4.25. Part Two.)

 

Questions for self-control

1. Into what units are words usually arranged?

2. What is the main factor that turns a word or a group of words into a sentence?

3. How is intonation defined by different phoneticians here and abord?

4. What do British phoneticians consider intonation to be?

5. What British linguists say that intonation consists in the rise and fall of voice pitch during speech?

6. Is the opinion of the American descriptivists any different?

7. What idea do the majority of Soviet linguists imply into the term intonation?

8. How do the components of intonation function?

9. What can you say about speech melody?

10. What section may an intonation-group have?

11. How many types of prehead do you know of?

 

 


Prof.D.Jones expresses his idea of intonation in the following way: "Intonation may te defined as the variations which take place in the pitch of the voice in connected speech, e.i. the variations in the pitch of the musical note produced by the, vibration of the vocal cords".

Another British linguist A.C.Gimson also treats intonation as variations of pitch and rises and falls in pitch level.

Among British phoneticians we may also mention R.Kingdon, J.D.O'Connor and G.F.Arnold, D.Crystal, W.S.Allen and others who share this point of view. They all agree that there ia a close connection between intonation and stress.

American descriptiviats speak of intonation and stress as different phonetic phenomens. Answering the question about the nature of intonation C.H.Prator writes: "Intonation is the tune of what we say. More specifically, it is the combination of musical tones on which we pronounce the syllables that make our speech. Then C.H.Prator adds that it is closely related to sentence stress.

Quite different in the opinion of the majority of Soviet linguists on the problem of intonation. The leading Soviet phoneticians state that intonation is a complex unity of (1) speech melody, (2) word prominence, (3) tempo, rhythm and pauses, and (4) voice-tamber. Variations in these four serve to express the communicative type of the utterance and the speaker's thoughts, feelings and attitudes towards reality.

The components of intonation all function together, they are inseparable from one another. But it is possible to single them out for the sole purpose of analysis.

Speech melody, or voice pitch is one of the leading components of intonation. It is closely connected with sentence-stress. Each intonation-group 2) may consist of the following sections: prehead, head, body (or scale), nuolous, tall. Graphically it may be represented in the following way:

prehead head body (scale) nucleus tail

There are two significant types of prehead: (1) low . . .(2) high . . . .

The head may be of three types (according to H. Palmer)

(1)Inferior , (2) superior , (3) scandent

There are six main types of body (or scale):(1) regular descending . (2) broken descending f ' ' ■

(3) low ■ . . . (4) ascending ' . (5) sliding

(6) scander t ' ■

There are eight main types of nuclear tones il (1) high rail

. (2) low fall (3) low riee s . U) high rioe

, (5) fall-riae ., 7 V . (6) rise-fall (7)

rlee-fall-rlee j . (8) !! jj

The tail may be>(7l) deBpending ~\ . (2) level -\ . . or , (3) ascending , or

-/5.6. The moot important eeotion of an intonation-group is the nucleus. It is the essential element. It ie the nuclear tone that each intonation-group mat bay*. Without a nuclear tone there may be no intonation-group. All the other sections ere non-obligatory.

Different combinations of the nuclei, heads, bodies (scales), pre heads and tails produce a great.variety of melodic patterns a English intonation. 11 is rather, difficult to learn all of hem and evidently not necessary, as some melodic patterns express identical meaning and that is why they may be grouped. ?or this purpose the number of Intonation patterns is reduced to the number of nuclear tones, which are low fall, high fall, low rise, high rise, fall-rise, rise-fall, rise-fall-rise, level. These nuclear tone when combined with different pre-heads, heads bodies, and tail lead a few significant variants in the intonation pattern of English.

yb.l* Soviet phoneticians also distinguish the so-called terminal tones. Terminal tonee are broader unite than nuclei, they indicate a change of pitch at the Junoture of two sentences or sense-groups. Terminal tone are (or may be) realised on the nuclei and the tails. The number of terminal tonee ie limited to falling, rising, rieing-fellin,; and falling-rising. On the contrary, nuclear tones are more axled.

H.A.Gleason distinguishes three terminal tones in American English (:ie calls them cl; use-terminals)x (1) fading / ^ / - a rapid fall; (2) rising / / - a sudden rapid rise) (3) sustained / -* / - a prolonged sua dined pronunciation.

As far as the pitoh levels nithln the intonation-group are concerned American descriptive ts call them pitch phonemes and distinguish four euoh levels: '..on, mid, high, extra high. The ueual pitches of the voioe are mid, low and high. The extra high pitch ie rarely used.

Closoly connected with the pitoh component of intonation is sentence-stress. Sentenoe-otress is a special prominence which is given to one or more words so as to single them out from other words in the same intonation-group or even in the whole aentenoe.

It is the sentence-stress that determines the pitoh of the voioe on the accentuated parte of an Intonation-group. Modlfica-tions in epeeoh melody generally take place within stressed syllables.

In unemphatlo epeeoh notiom 1 words are usually etreased (nouns, notional verbs, adjectives, numerals, adverbs and some pronouns), whereas form-words tre unstressed (articles, preposition*, oonjunotione, auxiliary and modal verbs and some pronouns).

The distribution of streesei in emphatic speech may be quite different with form-worde atrei sed and national words unstress':d

Streee may be evntagmatic, syntactic ftnd logical.

Syntagmatic stress is placed on the semantic centre of the sense-group which is the lucleua. Por example:

You 'told me to ask her. She has 'never 'been to England. The words "ask" and "England" bear syntagmatic stresses.

Syntactic stress singles out the other aemantically important words of the sentence. For instances

I 'think you'd'better 'stay home, he words "think", "better", "stay" are said to have syntactic *r,iea. (The word "home" hae syntagmatic stress.)

When the semantic cen re ie shifted from the last notional vord of the sentence to iome other words we get logical strso. or example: 4She turned away in silence. He's^ot a new Job.

Ann sought to have a doctor. Where does Mike live? In the above sentences the words *she", "new", "ought", "tike" have logical stresses.

5.10. Tempo, rhythm and pauses are considered to be ttmporul components of intonation.'

Tempo is the rate, or duration of speech. It may be slow, normal or quick. Through tempo we appreciate the relative importance of sentences and' their aenee-groupa. The more important parte of a sentence are pronounced at a alow tempo, the less important ones are aaid quickly.

Tempo is closely connected with rhythm. Our speech ia subdivided rhythmically into unite. Speech rhythm may be defined as a regular recurrence of stressed and unstressed eyllables. Rhyth-nlc characteristics of epeech have been looked into by people :\>r a long time. "Examples of Shakespeare's prose, ... all show

as well which are based on different principles (e.g. contrast stress, rhythmic stress, metric stress and jo on).

! 3

thRt, while the English language may have changed to a certain extent in form and pronunciation and idiom, its speech rhythm hae remained unaltered for thr<> hundred and fifty years". 1^

Rhythm is closely connected with etreea. Sense-groups in E?i: liah are divided into rhythmical groups. Each rhythmical group consists of a stressed syllable alone, or combined with one or more unstressed syllables attached to it. For example:

In this sentence there are four rhythmical groupa:

the firet las I 'think it ie ia ( _ j____){

the second lat 'possible to ( j_ _ )j

the third ist come at ( 1 )i

the fourth let 'once ( i ).

The length of the rhythmical groups of thia sentence varies frora one to five syllable*. Each rhythmical group should last approximately the acme time.

Pauses are cloaely connected with other components of intonation. Between lntonation-groupe there may be pauses of different lengths. At the end of a aenteace the pause is long. It ie indicated with a double vertical bar / j| /. A pauae between clauses ie abort, it la indicated witt a single vertical bar / J /. There ia a non-obligatory pause between parte of the sentence. It le a very short one and la indicated with a wavy vertical line / j /.

5.11. The laat component of intonation ia voice-tamber, or voice quality. It ie a oommon knowledge that aentences may be pronounced with different voioe colouring expressing all shades, of emotions, such as joy, mppineag, sadness, irony, indifference, indignation, hostility, and many others. Voice-taraber is connected with the pitch of the voice and the tempo of speech.

We do not know anything about the phyeical nature of this phenomenon, because the voice-tamber component hae not been investigated at all.

5.12. All the components of intonation exist and develop together. English intonatioo as a whole carries important information and like all other phonetic phenomena (phoneme, syllable, accent) intonation also fulfils three main functions: constitutive, distinctive, recognitive. (See also 3.16. 4.21. Part Two and 9.17. Part One).

The constitutive function of intonation consists in the fact that:

each syllable of eech section of an intonation-group has certain pitch and cannol exist without it;

the end of an intoration-group'is marked by a change of tch direction or pitch :evel. (This constitutive function is

often called sentence-delimiting function.);

each intonation-group must have at least one prominent word which is pronounced vith sentence-stress;

an intonation-grouf cannot exist without the temporal component either, because each intonation-group is pronounced at

acertain tempo, it has i's own rhythm, the end of an intonation-group is indicated by ., etc.

All these requisites prove that intonation (or rather all Its components) fulfils the constitutive function. No sentence can exist without intonation. (Intonation is present in any written sentence as well.

The most important is the distinctive function of intonation which manifests itself in the fact that intonation ae ■ whole is capable of differentiating one sense-group or sentence from another sense-group or sentence. The role of different components of intonation in differentiating sentences is not of equal importance, though. Some components play the leading role, while others play a subsidiary role.

The distinctive function of intonation is most vividly observed in phonological oppositions. The number of phonological oppositions is quite considerable. They may be achieved within each component of intonation, i.o. within the speech melody, within the sentence-stress, within the temporal component, and within the voice-tamber (or voice quality),

Consequently, the comparison of different types of speech melody, sentence-stress, tempo, rhythm, pauses, eto. may produce the following phonological oppositions:

 

falling tones vs. rising tones;

low falling tones vs. high falling tones;

low rising tones vs. high rising tones;

low falling tones vs. felling-rising tones;

low falling tones vs. rising-falling tones;

regular descending body vi . low (or ascending) body;

regular descending body vi . sliding body;

regular descending body ve. scandent body;

low prehead vs. high prehead;

presence vs. absence of i entence-atress;

presence vs. absence of jause, etc.

These phonological oppositlont are illustrated below by some examples with minor explanations.

 

FALLING TONES vs. RISING TONES

Palling tones generally express finality, the categoric nature of the utterance, its independence and greater semantic weight.

Rising tones on the contrary express non-finality, the non-categoric nature of the utterance, i'te dependence and smaller semantic weight. Por example!

(a)A categoric stateme it vs. a non-categoric statement:

I'think you ought to apologize, (categoric),

I 'think you 'ought to apologize, (non-categoric);

(b)Acategoric commanc vs. a polite rfiqueet:

'come along! (ace tegoric command), tome a^ongl (a pclite request);

(c) asimple categoric statement vs. e general question: She was glad to 'find the key. (a statement), She was 'glad to :.'ind the key-? (a general question);

(d)A statement of fact,vs.' an exclamations

We've passed our driving tests, (a statement), We've passed our 4drlving tests! (an exclamation);

(e)ageneral question vs. an exclamation!

'isn't it wonderful? (a general question), 'isn't it wonderful! (an exclamation);

(f)An alternative question vs. a general question;

'Do you want some ^tea\ or coffee? (an alternative question), *Do you 'want aom< *tea or coffee? (a general question, meaning "Do you want a drink?"). In the last case there is also another opposition of presence vs. absence of pause after the word "tea".

 

 


:

  1. A BREACH IN LANGUAGE BARRIERS
  2. A Pidgin Language
  3. A Survey of Swiss English Teachers
  4. A. What countries is English the first language? Match English-speaking countries with their national flags and capitals.
  5. Act as an interpreter. Translate the description of N-type and P-type- semiconductors given by your group mates from English into Russian.
  6. Agriculture. The branch structure
  7. An Extract from the Late Middle English works criticizing the Church
  8. ANALOGY IN NATURAL LANGUAGES
  9. Analyse cases of metaphor into the components of its structure.
  10. ANCIENT STRUCTURES
  11. AND UKRAINIAN LANGUAGES. AFFIXATION.
  12. Ask your friend questions in English about their content. Summarize his/her answers.

...



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LECTURE UNSTRESSED VOCALISM | LECTURE 4PHONOLOGICAL ASPECT OF SPEECH SOUNDS

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