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The meaning of conjunctions is closely connected with the relations they express. Thus the classes of coordinating conjunctions according to their meaning correspond to different types of compound sentences.
There are four different kinds of coordinating conjunctions.
1.Copulativeconjunctions: and, nor, as well as, both ... and, not only ... but (also)f neither... nor. Copulative conjunctions chiefly denote that one statement or fact is simply added to another (nor and neither express that relation in the negative sense).
There was a scent of honey from the lime trees in flower, andin the sky the
blue was beautiful, with a few white clouds. (Galsworthy)
His whole face was colourless rock; his eye was bothspark andflint. (Ch.
I do not know what they knew of the things happening beyond the hill, nordo
I know if the silent houses I passed on my way were sleeping securely...
...but it made him indeed suspect that she could give as well asreceive; and
she gave him nothing. (Galsworthy)
...the newspapers discussed the play for a whole fortnight not onlyin the
ordinary theatrical notices and criticisms, butin leading articles and letters.
He went on as a statue would: that is, he neither spoke normoved. (Ch.
2. Disjunctive conjunctions: or, either... or, or else, else.
Disjunctive conjunctions offer some choice between one statement and another.
The majority of the inhabitants had escaped, I suppose, by way of the Old
Worning road... or they had hidden. (Wells)
...eitherhis furlough was up, or he dreaded to meet any witnesses of his
Waterloo flight. (Thackeray)
He was compelled to think this thought, or elsethere would not be any use to
strive, and he would have lain down and died. (London)
“You go and fetch her down, Tom,” said Mr. Tulliver, rather sharply, his
perspicacity or his fatherly fondness for Maggie making him suspect that the
lad had been hard upon “the little un”, elseshe would never have left his
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3. Adversative conjunctions: but, while, whereas. Adversative conjunctions show that one statement or fact is contrasted with or set against another.
Fabermacher nodded in agreement, buthis eyes glittered with silent triumph
and contempt for the victory. (Wilson)
His nerves had become blunted, numb, whilehis mind was filled with weird
visions and delicious dreams. (London)
4. Causative-consecutiveconjunctions: so, for. Causative-consecutive conjunctions denote consequence, result, or reason. By these conjunctions one statement or fact is inferred or proved from another.
He had gone some miles away, and was not expected home until late at night;
so the landlady dispatched the same messenger in all haste for Mr. Pecksniff.
His eyes mast have had in them something of George Forsyte’s sardonic look;
forher gloved hand crisped the folds of her frock, her eyebrows rose, her face
went stony. (Galsworthy)
The conjunction for is a border-line case between a coordinating and a subordinating conjunction. When expressing cause it approaches in its meaning the subordinating conjunctions as, because:
There was moreover time to spare, forFleur was to meet him at the Gallery at
four o’clock, and it was yet half past two. (Galsworthy)
Coordinating conjunctions can be used both in compound and in simple sentences; the coordinating copulative conjunctions both... and, as well as are used only in simple sentences.
Then he shrugged in impatience and said frankly, “I don’t know what came
over me.” “You know as wellas I do and that’s why we’re going away,”
Savina insisted steadily. (Wilson)
The use of the copulative conjunction and in simple sentences as well as in compound sentences is widely spread.
But as he did so, unexpectedly he paused, andraised his head. (Cronln)
The coordinating conjunctions neither... nor, or, either... or are more widely used in simple sentences than in complex sentences.
There was nothing remarkable about the size of the eyes. They were neither
large norsmall... (London)
...in order to make a man or a boy covet a thing, it is only necessary to make
the thing difficult to attain. (Twain)
...there was a slight smile on his lips that could have been eitheramusement
or shy self-deprecation. (Wilson)
Some of the coordinating conjunctions are polysemantic. Thus the coordinating conjunction and may indicate different relations:
...there stood a white house within a walled garden, and in the pantry of this
we found a store of food. (Wells) (COPULATIVE)
You are nineteen, Jon, andI am seventy-two. How are we to understand each
other in a matter like this, eh? (Galsworthy) (ADVERSATIVE)
When he read those books something happened to him, andhe went out of
doors again in passionate quest of a river. (Galsworthy) (CONSECUTIVE)
The conjunction or may have a disjunctive and an adversative meaning.
Happily it (a hackney-coach) brought them to the place where Jonas dwelt or
the young ladies might have rather missed the point and cream of the jest.
After that one would see, or more probably one would not. (Galsworthy)
The causative-consecutive conjunction for may have a causative or a consecutive meaning:
He would have to be more careful than man had ever been, forthe least thing
would give it away and make her as wretched as himself almost. (Galsworthy)
From the warmth of her embrace he probably divined that he had let the cat
out of the bag, forhe rode off at once on irony. (Galsworthy)
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