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Blood and its elements

 

Blood is a fluid connective tissue with many various functions. Many important physiological process take place in the blood. It also determines the activity of separated body cells.

Blood is composed of plasma and the cellular elements. They are red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes) and blood platelets (thrombocytes).

About 65 per cent of all white cells are leukocytes. Their protoplasm contains granules. One characteristic of leukocytes is the lobed appearance of the nucleus. The number of lobes is thought to be an index to the cell’s age. About 45 per cent of all leukocytes have a nucleus of three lobes. The life span of a leucocyte is short, from 4 to 12 days.

The function of leukocytes is to protect against infection. After the skin is pierced and the wound becomes infected, leukocytes from all the body are attracted to this place. Arriving at the wound, they leave the blood stream. They engulf the bacteria within their own protoplasm. This process is called phagocytosis.

Erythrocytes are the most numerous cellular elements. Red corpuscles have two physical features which are very important in the function of respiration. They have great elasticity and flexibility. These features give them the possibility to pass through very small capillaries. The most important part of the red cell is its red substance or hemoglobin.

The average human blood volume is not less than 7.5% but not more than 10% of the body weight.

 

Do the tasks according to the variants

Variant 1

Fill in the table using the information below

Corpuscular elements Features
Leukocytes 1. 2. …
Erythrocytes 1. 2. …

 

White corpuscles; numerous cellular elements; have elasticity and flexibility; have granules in the protoplasm; pass through small capillaries; have a short span of life; have a lobed appearance of the nucleus; take part in the function of respiration; contain red colouring substance ( hemoglobin ); protect against infection; arrive at the wound and engulf the bacteria.



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Variant 2

Answer the questions to the text “Blood and its elements”. Translate the answers.

1.What kind of tissue is the blood?

2.What is the blood compose of ?

3.What is the charachteristic of leukocytes?

4.What is the function of leukocytes?

5.What do leukocytes do when a wound becomes infected?

6.What are the most numerous cellular elements?

7.What features do erythrocytes have?

8.What is the important part of erythrocytes?

9.What is the total blood volume divided into?

 

Variant 3

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