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Engineering is one of the oldest occupations in history. Without the skills included in the broad field of engineering, our present-day civilization never could have evolved.

Engineering is often defined as making practical application of theoretical sciences such as physics and mathematics. Many of the early branches of engineering were based not on science but on em­pirical information that depended on observation and experience rather than on theoretical knowledge.

This kind of experimentation eventually led to what is known as the Industrial Revolution, which began in the eighteenth century. First steam engines and then other kinds of machines took over more and more of the work that had previously been done by human beings or by animals. James Watt, one of the key figures in the early development of steam engines, devised the concept of horsepower to make it easier for his customers to understand the amount of work his machines could perform.

One result of the rapid expansion of scientific knowledge was an increase in the number of engineering specialties. By the end of the nineteenth century not only were mechanical, civil, and mining and metallurgical engineering established but the newer specialties of chemical and electrical engineering emerged. This growth in the number of specialties is continuing with the establishment of such disciplines as aerospace, nuclear, petroleum, and electronic engi­neering. Many of these are subdivisions of earlier specialties — for example, electronic from electrical engineering or petroleum from chemical. Within the field of mechanical engineering the major subdivision is industrial engineering which is concerned with com­plete mechanical systems for industry rather than individual machines.

Because of the large number of engineering fields today there are often many different kinds of engineers working on large pro­jects such as the development of nuclear power or new aircraft. In the design of a new aircraft mechanical engineers work not only on the plane's engines but on other mechanical aspects such as the braking system. When the aircraft goes into production mechanical and industrial engineers are involved in designing the machines necessary to fabricate the different parts as well as the entire system for assembling them. In both phases of such a project mechanical engineers work with specialists in fields such as aerospace and electronic engineering.

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Another result of the increase of scientific knowledge is that engineering has become a profession. A profession is an occupation like law or medicine that requires specialized advanced education; such occupations are often called the «learned professions». Today it requires at least four or five years of university study leading to a Bachelor of Science degree. More and more often engineers, espe­cially those engaged in research, get an advanced master's or doc­tor's degree. Even those engineers who do not study for advanced degrees must keep up with changes in their profession and those related to it. A mechanical engineer who does not know about new materials cannot successfully compete with one who does. All of this means that an engineer's education is never really finished so he or she must be willing to continue the learning process.

The word engineer is used in two senses in English. One, as just indicated, refers to the professional engineer who has a univer­sity degree and an education in mathematics, science, and one of the engineering specialties. Engineer, however, is also used to de­scribe a person who operates or maintains an engine or machine. An excellent example of this is the locomotive engineer who oper­ates a train on a railroad. Engineers in this sense are essentially highly-trained technicians rather than professional engineers.

The public has become much more aware, especially in the last decade, of the social and environmental consequences of engi­neering projects. Countless cars and other mechanical devices are part of our engineered environment. Engineers are working to solve the problems of environmental pollution by designing devices that reduce pollution and improve fuel efficiency.

Engineering is described as a profession that finds prac­tical application of theoretical science. A successful engineer must enlarge the definition of practical to include the idea that the work is safe and desirable for society.



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