AUDIAL PRACTICE 1. Balzac and His Handwriting
Balzac, the famous French writer, was aman of great talent. He wrote many novels which were translated into different languages m& were known all over the world. But Balzac himself wasproud of his ability to tell the character and behaviour of a person by his or her handwriting.
One day a woman friend of Balzac brought him a young boy's exercise book. She showed it to him and asked him to try to tell her what he thought of the boy's character. The woman said that the boy was not her son and that Balzac might tell her the truth. Balzac studied the handwriting for a few minutes and then said: "Everything is quite clear to me. I shall tell you the truth ." He asked the woman to pay attention to some features of the handwriting and said that the boy was a bad,lazy fellow, "ft can't be
possible," said the woman smiling. "This is a page from the exercise book which you used when you were a boy "
2. The Story of American Schools
The first schools in America started in the 1600s. The Puritans, that is people who left England because of their religious beliefs, wanted each person in New England to know the Bible So they organized schools to teach religion and basic subjects. But by the 19th century large numbers of children did not attend school. The problem of children's education started a great debate in America. There were three groups of people who had different ideas.
One group said that young people should spend their time at home helping their families. As most Americans lived on farms there was always much agricultural work to be done.
The second group, mostly businessmen, believed that children should work at factories America's Industrial Revolution had begun, and this group knew that there would be many jobs in manufacturing. Some young people were already working at factories. They were children from 7 to 16 years old and their working day lasted up to 13 hours.
The third group said that to help create a better society, young people should know how to write and express their own ideas. Therefore each state should develop a system of public schools, called free schools, or common schools. This idea had been supported by Thomas Jefferson, the third president, and later by Abraham Lincoln who said that education was very important for people.
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In 1839 Horace Mann, a Massachusetts-bom educator, a lawyer by profession, opened the first common school in the United States. He devoted his life to this idea and soon a lot of common schools were opened throughout the state of Massachusetts His example attracted national attention. Before long many states were doing what Massachusetts had done The free school supporters had won the debate.
Key to Ex. б
1. Weather Forecast
Two mm were travelling in a very wild part of America. They did not see any houses but only tents where Indians lived. One day the men met an old Indian who was sitting near his tent. He was smoking. The Indian was a hunter and knew everything about the forest and the animals living in it and many other things. He could also speak English rather well.
"Can you tell us what the weather will be like during the next few davs?" one of the two travellers asked him.
"Oh, yes," he answered. "Rain is coming, and wind.There willbe snow for one or two days, but then the sunshine will come again and the weather will be fine."
"These old Indians know more about the world than we with all our knowledge of physics, maths and other sciences."
'Tell me," he asked, "how do you know all that?"
The Indian answered: "I heard it over the radio "
2. New York Tram 
Aerial cable cars connect Manhattan Island with Roosevelt Island which is in the middle of the East River. It is a residential complex with its own schools, shops, banks, restaurants and recreation facilities. The people living in this "new town" on the islandwelcomed the opening of the tramway which is 945 meters longRed and white cars take themfrom Roosevelt Island and three and a half minutes laterthe people (passengers) are in Manhattan where they can get to their jobs bybus or subway.
The cable car rises to its cruising height of 41 meters above the ground and travels at a speed of 26 kilometers an hour. It moves over New York skyscrapers, the United Nations building and the East River. Each car carries 125 passengers. The tramway operates from 6 a.m. to 2 a.m. daily. In the morning and evening rush hours cars run continuously. They run every fifteen minutes at other times.
Roosevelt Islanders now have the best of city living — a pleasant, well-planned community with beautiful views of Manhattan's skyline, just minutes from the city's busiest streets.
Key to Ex. 6
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