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The organs of speech and their work. The active and passive organs of speech.

Phonetics as a science. Two main divisions of phonetics. The stages of human speech. Three branches of phonetics.

Phonetics studies the sound system of the language. That is segmental phonemes, word stress, syllabic structure and intonation. The first phoneticians were Indians.

Phonetics has two main divisions:

1. study of the sound patterns of language

2. study of substance

Stages of human speech are:

- Sociological

- Physiological

- Reception

- Transmission

- Interpretation

The brunch of phonetics that studies the way is called articulator phonetics.

Acoustic phonetics studies the air vibrates between the speaker mouth and the listening ear.

Auditory phonetics is concerned with speech perception: How sound is received by the inner ear and perceived by the brain.


 


Phonology and its subject matter. Standard English (RP).

The brunch of phonetics that studies the linguistic function of consonant and vowel sounds, syllabic structure, word accent and prosodic pitches, stress and tempo is called phonology.

An important part of phonology is studying which sounds are distinctive units within a language. And phonology studies how sounds alternate.

Received Pronunciation (or RP) is a special accent - a regionally neutral accent that is used as a standard for broadcasting and some other kinds of public speaking. It is not fixed - you can hear forms of RP in historical broadcasts, such as newsreel films from the Second World War. Queen Elizabeth II has an accent close to the RP of her own childhood, but not very close to the RP of the 21st century.

RP excites powerful feelings of admiration and repulsion. Some see it as a standard or the correct form of spoken English, while others see its use (in broadcasting, say) as an affront to the dignity of their own region. Its merit lies in its being more widely understood by a national and international audience than any regional accent. Non-native speakers often want to learn RP, rather than a regional accent of English. RP exists but no-one is compelled to use it. But if we see it as a reference point, we can decide how far we want to use the sounds of our region where these differ from the RP standard.



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The organs of speech and their work. The active and passive organs of speech.

Organs of speech are: nasal cavity, lips, teeth, alveolar ridge, larynx, palate (soft and hard), uvula, tongue (tip, blade, front, back), epiglottis, pharynx, vocal cords, and trachea.

The air stream released by the lungs goes through the wind­pipe and comes to the larynx, which contains the vocal cords. The vocal cords are two elastic folds which may be kept apart or brought together. The opening between them is called the glottis. If the tense vocal cords are brought together, the air stream forcing an opening makes them vibrate and we hear some voice.

On coming out of the larynx the air stream passes through the pharynx.

The pharyngal cavity extends from the top of the larynx to the soft palate, which directs the air stream either to the mouth or nasal cavities, which function as the principal resonators.

The soft palate is the furthest part of the palate from the teeth. Most of the palate is hard. This hard and fixed part of the palate is divided into two sections: the hard palate (the highest part of the palate) and the teeth ridge or alveolar ridge.

The most important organ of speech is the tongue. Pho­neticians divide the tongue into four sections, the part which lies opposite the soft palate is called the back of the tongue; the part facing the hard palate is called the front; the one lying under the teeth ridge is known as the blade and its extremity the t i p .

The lips can take up various positions as well. They can be brought firmly together or kept apart neutral, rounded, or pro­truded forward.

Active organs of speech are movable and taking an active part in a sound formation:

a) Vocal cords which produce voice

b) The tongue which is the most flexible movable organ

c) The lips affective very considerably the shape of the mouth cavity

d) The soft palate with the uvula directing the stream of air either to the mouth or to the nasal cavity

e) The back wall of the faring contracted for some sounds

f) The lower jaw which movement controls the gap between the teeth and also the disposition of the lips

g) The lungs air for sounds

Passive organs of speech:

a) the teeth

b) the teeth ridge or alveolar ridge

c) the hard palate

d) the walls of the resonators


 


 




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 | The International Phonetic Alphabet (transcription)

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