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Types of morphemes

Free morphemes, like town and dog, can appear with other lexemes (as in town hall or dog house) or they can stand alone, i.e., "free".

Bound morphemes like "un-" appear only together with other morphemes to form a lexeme. Bound morphemes in general tend to be prefixes and suffixes. Unproductive, non-affix morphemes that exist only in bound form are known as "cranberry" morphemes, from the "cran" in that very word.

Derivational morphemes can be added to a word to create (derive) another word: the addition of "-ness" to "happy," for example, to give "happiness." They carry semantic information.

Inflectional morphemes modify a word's tense, number, aspect, and so on, without deriving a new word or a word in a new grammatical category (as in the "dog" morpheme if written with the plural marker morpheme "-s" becomes "dogs"). They carry grammatical information.

Allomorphs are variants of a morpheme, e.g., the plural marker in English is sometimes realized as /-z/, /-s/ or /-ɨz/.

 

7. The morphological systems of the English and Ukrainian languages are characterized by a considerable number of isomorphic and bysome allomorphic features. The isomorphic features are due to the common Indo-European origin of the two languages while theallomorphic features have been acquired by them in the course of their historic development and functioning as independent nationallanguages,Contrastive morphology deals with: a) the specific traits of morphemes in languages under investigation; b) the parts of speecharid their grammatical meanings (morphological categories).The morpheme is a minimal meaningful unit, which may be free!root, that is they can stand alone and do not depend on othermorphemes in a word, and hound, that is they cannot stand alone, they are bound to the root or to the stem consisting of the root and oneor moreaffixal morphemes. Due to its historical development, English has a much larger number of root morphemes than Ukrainian.Consequently, the number of inflexions expressing the morphological categories is much smaller in English than in Ukrainian. E.g.: arm,pen, hoy. work, do, red, he, she, it, five, ten, here:лоб,чуб,я,є,три ,тут,де,etc.Affixal morphemes are represented in English and Ukrainian by suffixes or prefixes.Suffixes in the contrasted languages, when added to the root, change the form of thewords, adding some new shade to their lexical meaning: duck...duckling:, four ..fourteen ---forty;



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.The number of suffixes in the contrasted languages considerably exceeds the number of prefixes. Among thenoun indicating suffixes in English are -асу,-anee, -ion, -dom, -er, -ess, -hood, -ism, -Ity, -merit, -ness, -ship and others. The adjectiveindicating suffixes are: -able, -al, -k, -isfa, -ful, -less, -otis, -some» -y, etc. The verb indicating suffixes are -ate, -en, -esee, -ify, -ize, and.the adverb indicating suffixes -!y, -wards, -ways, Ukrainian word-forming suffixes are more numerous and also more diverse by theirnature because there exist special suffixes to identify different genders of nouns. The masculine gender suffixes of nouns in Ukrainianare -

ник,-ецьАєць,-ар/~яр,-up, -ист,-тель,-аль.

Suffixes of feminine gender in Ukrainian are: -к/а,-иц/я,-ec/a, -их/а,-ш/а.

Suffixesof the neuter gender are mostly used in Ukrainian to identify collective nouns, as in the nouns:

жіно-цтв-о, 6ади-лл- я.збі-жж-я

.Besides,inUkrainianthereexistiargegroupsofevaluativesuffixes(сон-ечк-о,кабан-юр-а)andpatronymicsuffixes: -енк-о,-ук,-еоуь

(Бондаренко,Поліщук,Птшець).Prefixes in the contrasted languages modify the lexical meaning of the word: coexistence, unable

, підвид, праліс, вбігати,вибігати.

Word-forming prefixes pertain mostly io the English language where they can form different parts of speech, Verbs; enable,disable, enclose. Abjectives: pre-war, post-war. Adverbs! today, tomorrow, together. Prepositions: below, behind. Conjunctions:because, unless, until. In Ukrainian only some conjunctions and adverbs can be formed by means of prefixes, for example:вдень,вночі.

Isomorphic is also the use of two (in English) and more (in Ukrainian) prefixes before the root: misrepresentation,oversubscription,

недовиторг., перерозподіл,etc.Inflexional morphemes in the contrasted .languages express different morphological categories. The number of genuinely Englishinflexions is restricted to noun inflexions: -s/-es, -en, -ren (boys, watches, oxen, children); inflexions of the comparative and thesuperlative degrees of qualitative adjectives: ~er, -est (bigger, biggest): inflexions of the comparative and the superlative degrees of qualitative adverbs: -er, -est (slowlier, slowliest); the verbal inflexions: ~s/-es, -d/-ed, -t, -n/-en {he puts/watches; she learned therule/burnt the candle; a broken -pencil); the inflexions of absolute possessive pronouns: -s, -e (hers, ours, yours, mine, thine). Besides thegenuine English inflexional morphemes, there exist some foreign inflexions used with nouns of Latin, Greek and French origin only.Among them Latin inflexions -um/-a(datum ........... data); -us/-i (terminus ...... termini); -a/-ae (formula .... formulae); -is/-es (thesis ........theses); Greek inflexions -on/-a (phenomenon— phenomena); -ion/-ia (criterion— criteria). The number of inflexions in Ukrainianexceeds their number in English since every national part of speech has a variety of endings. They express number, case and gender of nominal parts of speech and tense, aspect, person, number, voice and mood of verbs:

червоний — червоного — червоному — червоним; двоє -двох — двом — двома;читаю —читав — читала — читали — читатиму-читатимеш-читатимете,etc

9.The syntactico-distributional classification of words is based on the study of their combinability by means of substitution testing. The testing results in developing the standard model of four main "positions" of notional words in the English sentence: those of the noun (N), verb (V), adjective (A), ad­verb (D).

Fries chooses tape-recorded spontaneous conversa­tions comprising about 250,000 word entries (50 hours of talk). The words isolated from this corpus are tested on the three typical sentences (that are isolated from the records, too), and used as substitution test-frames:

Frame A. The concert was good (always).

Frame B. The clerk remembered the tax (suddenly).

Frame C. The team went there.

As a result of successive substitution tests on the cited "frames" the following lists of positional words ("form-words", or "parts of speech") are established:

Class 1. (A) concert, coffee, taste, container, difference, etc. (B) clerk, husband, supervisor, etc.; tax, food, coffee, etc. (C) team, husband, wom­an, etc.

Class 2. (A) was, seemed, became, etc. (B) remembered, wanted, saw, suggested, etc. (C) went, came, ran,... lived, worked, etc.

Class 3. (A) good, large, necessary, foreign, new, empty, etc.

Class 4. (A) there, here, always, then, sometimes, etc. (B) clearly, suf­ficiently, especially, repeatedly, soon, etc. (C) there, back, out, etc.; rapid­ly, eagerly, confidently, etc.

All these words can fill in the positions of the frames without affecting their general structural meaning:

- the first frame; "actor - action - thing acted upon - characteristic of the action"

- the second frame; "actor - action - direction of the action"

- the third frame.

Comparing the syntactico-distributional classification of words with the traditional part of speech division of words, one cannot but see the similarity of the general schemes of the two: the opposition of notional and functional words, the four absolutely cardinal classes of notional words (since numerals and pronouns have no positional functions of their own and serve as pro-nounal and pro-adjectival elements), the in­terpretation of functional words as syntactic mediators and their formal representation by the fist.

However, under these unquestionable traits of similarity are distinctly revealed essential features of difference, the proper evaluation of which allows us to make some important generalizations about the structure of the lexemic system of language.




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