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It must be clearly understood that the logical and the emotive are built into our minds and they are present there in different degrees when we think of various phenomena of objective reality. The ratio of the two elements is reflected in the composition of verbal chains, i.e. in expression.

Different emotional elements may appear in the utterance depending on its character and pragmatic aspect.

We shall try to distinguish between elements of language which have emotive meaning in their semantic structure and those which acquire this meaning in the context under the influence of a SD or some other more expressive means of utterance.

A greater or lesser volume of emotiveness may be distinguished in words which have emotive meaning in their semantic structure. The most highly emotive words are words charged with emotive meaning to the extent that the logical meaning can hardly be registered. These are interjectionsand all kinds of exclamations.Next come epithetsin which we can observe a kind of parity between emotive and logical meaning. Thirdly come epithets of the oxymoronic type,in which the logical meaning prevails over the emotive but where the emotive is the results of the clash between the logical and illogical.

The Epithet(Greek origin - приложение)

Epithet expresses a characteristic of an object, both existing and imaginary. Its basic feature is its emotiveness and subjectivity: the characteristic attached to the object to quality it is always chosen by the speaker himself. (Kukharenko). From the strongest means of displaying the writer's or speaker's emotional attitude to his communication Epithet is a weaker but still forceful means. Epithet is not so direct as interjection. The epithet is a SD based on the interplay of emotive and logical meaning in an attributive word, phrase or even sentence used to characterize an object and pointing out to the reader, and frequently imposing on him, some of the properties or features and evaluation of these features or properties. The epithet is markedly subjective and evaluative. The logical attribute is purely objective, non-evaluating. It is descriptive & indicates an inherent or prominent feature of the thing or phenomenon in question .

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Thus in "green meadows", "white snow", "round table", "blue skies" and the like, the adjectives are more logical attributes than epithets. Epithets may be lassified from different standpoints: semantic, structural. Semantically, epithets may be divided into two groups: those associated with the noun following and those unassociated with it.

Associated epithets are those which point to a feature which is essential to the object they describe: the idea expressed in the epithet is to a certain extent inherent in the concept of the object. The associated epithet immediately refers the mind to the concept in question due to some actual quality of the object it is attached to, for instance, "dark forests", "dreary midnight", "careful attention", unwearying research", "indefatigable assiduity", "fantastic terrors", etc.

Unassociated epithets are attributes used to characterize the object by adding a feature not inherent in it, i.e. a feature which may be so unexpected as to strike the reader by its novelty, as, for instance, "heart-burning smile", "bootless cries", "sullen earth", "voiceless sands", etc. The adjectives here do not indicate any property inherent in the object in question. They impose, as it were, a property on them which is fitting only in the given circumstances. It may seem strange, unusual or even accidental.

Structurally,epithets can be viewed from the angle of a) composition, b) distribution.

From the point of view of their compositional structure epithets may be divided into simple, compound, phrase and* sentence epithets. Simple epithets are ordinary adjectives. Compound epithets are built like compound adjectives. Examples are: "heart-burning sigh", "sylph-like figures", "cloud-shapen giant"

The tendency to cram into one language unit as much in formation as possible has led to new compositional models for epithet which we shall call phrase epithets.A phrase and even a whole sentence may become an epithet if the main formal requirement of the epithet is maintained, viz. its attributive use. But unlike simple and compound epithets, which may have pre- or post-position, phrase epithets are always placed before the nouns they refer to. Here are some examples of phrase epithets:"Freddie was standing in front of the fireplace with a well-that's-the-story-what-are-we-going-to-do-about-it' air that made him a focal point." (Leslie Ford, "Siren in the Night") sentence epithet reversed epithet.

Another distributional model is the transferred or figurative epithet. Transferred epithets are ordinary logical attributes generally describing the state of a human being, but made to refer to an inanimate object, for example: sick chamber, sleepless pillow, restless pace, breathless eagerness, unbreakfasted morning, merry hours, a disapproving finger.

As may be seen, it is the force contributed to the attribute by its position, and not by its meaning , that hallows it into an epithet. The main feature of the epithet, that of emotional assessment, is greatly diminished in this model; but it never quite vanishes.

Another structural variety of the epithet is one which we shall term reversed. The reversed epithet is composed of two nouns linked in an of-phrase: " the shadow of a smile", a devil of a job", "the ghost of a smile", "a little Flying Dutchman of a cab", "a dog of a fellow", etc. Such epithets are metaphorical. The noun to be assessed is contained in the of-phrase and the noun it qualities is a metaphor (shadow, devil, ghost, Flying Dutchman, dog). The grammatical aspect, viz. attribute relation between the members of the combination shows that the SD here is an epithet.

Another distributional model is the transferred(or figurative) epithet. Transferred epithets are ordinary logical attributes generally describing the state of a human being, but made to refer to an inanimate object, for example: sick chamber, sleepless pillow, restless pace, breathless eagerness, unbreakfasted morning, merry hours, a disapproving finger.

According to Prof. V..A. Kukharenko figurative or transferred epithet is formed of metaphors, metonymies and similes expressed by adjectives: e.g. "the smiling sun", "the frowning cloud", "the tobaccostained smile", "a ghost-like face", "a dreamlike experience". Like metaphor, metonymy and simile, corresponding epithets are also based on similarity of characteristics of two objects in the first case, on nearness of the qualified objects in the second one, and on their comparison in the third.

Oxymoron(от греч. - остроумно-глупое)


Oxymoron - is a combination of two words (mostly an adjective and a noun or an adverb with an adjective) in which the meaning of the two clash, being opposite in sense, for example:

" low skyscraper", "sweet sorrow", "nice rascal", "pleasantly ugly face", "horribly beautiful", "a deafening silence"

The essence of oxymoron consists in the capacity of the primary meaning of the adjective or adverb to resist for some time the overwhelming power of semantic change which words undergo in combination.

Oxymoron has one main structural model: adjective + noun. It is in this structural model that the resistance of the two component parts to fusion into one unit manifests itself most strongly. In the adverb + adjective model the change of meaning in the first element, the adverb, is more rapid, resistance to the unifying process not being so strong.

4. Interaction of Logical and Nominal Meaning. Antonomasia

Antonomasia (антономас(з)ия) – (греч. – переименование)

Antonomasia is a lexical SD in which a proper name is used instead of a common noun or vice versa, i.e. a SD, in which the nominal meaning of a proper name is suppressed by its logical meaning or the logical meaning acquires the new-nominal-component. Logical meaning serves to denote concepts and thus to classify individual objects into groups (classes). Nominal meaning has no classifying power for it applies to one single individual object with one aim not of classifying it as just another of a number of objects constituting a definite group, but on the contrary, with the aim of singling it out of the group of similar objects. "He took little satisfaction in telling each Mary, shortly after she arrived, some thing..." (Dreiser). In this example the word (attribute) "each1 used with the name, turns it into a common noun denoting any woman (V .A. Kukharenko).

Antonomasia is the interplay between the logical and nominal meanings of a word. As in other stylistic devices based on the interaction of lexical meanings, the two kinds of meanings must be realized in the word simultaneously. If only one meaning is materialized in the concept, there is no SD, as in hooligan boycott and other examples. "Among the herd of journals which are published in the States, there are some, the reader scarcely need to be told of character and credit. From Personal intercourse with accomplished gentlemen connected with publication of this class, I have derived both pleasure and profit, but the name of these is Few, and of the other Legion, and the influence of the good is powerless to counteract the mortal poison of the bad." (Dickens)

The use of the word name made the author write the words Few and Legion with capital letters. It is very important to note that this device is mainly realized in the written language, because capital letters are the only signals to denote the presence of SD.

In this example the use of antonomasia the nominal meaning is hardly perceived, the logical meaning of the words few, legion being too strong. But there is another point that should be mentioned. Most proper names are built on some law of analogy. Many of them end in -son (as Johnson) or -er (Fletcher). We easily recognize such words as Smith, White, Brown, Green, Fowler and others as proper names. But such names as Miss Blue-Eyes (Carter Brown) or Scrooge or Mr. Lero may be called token or telling names. They give information to the reader about the bearer of the name. Antonomasia may be likened to the epithet in essence of not in form. It categorizes the person and thus simultaneously indicates both the general and the particular.

5. Intensification of a Certain Feature of a thing or Phenomena

Simile -от греч. - подобное (художественное сравнение)

Simile is an imaginative comparison of two unlike objects belonging to two different classes. The one which is compared is called the tenor, the one with which it is compared is called vehicle. The tenor and the vehicle form the two semantic poles of the simile which are connected by one of the following link words: like, as, as though, as like, such as, as...as, etc. Simile should not be confused with simple (logical, ordinary) comparison as "She is like her mother" (simple comparison). She is like a rose - simile (V. A. Kukharenko)

The intensification of some one feature of the concept in question is realized in a device called simile. Ordinary comparison and simile should not be confused.

Similes have formal elements in their structure: connective words such as like, as, such as, as if, seem. "It was that moment of the year when the countryside seems to faint from its own loveliness, from the intoxication of its scents and sounds.

(J. Galsworthy).

This is an example of a simile which is half a metaphor. If not for the structural word "seems" we should call it a metaphor. The semantic nature of the simile-forming elements seem & as if is such that they only remotely suggest resemblance. Quite different are the connectives like and as. These are more categorical and establish quite straightforwardly the analogy between the two objects in question. Sometimes the simile-forming like is placed at the end of the phrase almost merging with it and becoming half-suffix, for example: "Emily Barton was very pink, very Dresden-china-shepherdess like У


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