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Geographical position of the British Isles

Lecture 2

Theme: The Land and the Population.

1. Geographical position of the British Isles

2. Physical structure and relief

3. Climate and weather

 

The British Isles are situated off the north-west coast Europe and consist of a group of islands. The total area of the British Isles is 322 246 square km-s. They are made up of two large islands - Great Britain and Ireland - and over 5.000 smaller islands.

Britain formally known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It comprises the mаіn land of England, Wales and Scotland (Great Britain) and the Northern Ireland (part of Ireland)

The capital of England is London, the capital of Scotland is Edinburgh, the capital of Wales is Cardiff, the capital of Northern Ireland is Belfast.

As to the national emblems of the United Kingdom, one can name the red rose- the national emblem of England, the thistle- the national emblems of Scotland, the leek and the daffodils are the emblems of Wales, the shamrock (a king of clover) is the emblems of Ireland

The British Isles are of the continental origin. Once they formed part of that continent, they became islands only when they were separated from it. The separation took place thousands of years ago, after the last Ice Age, and greatly influenced the history and the geography of these islands.

The United Kingdom's area is some 244.100 sq. kilometers, of which about 99% in land and remainder island water. From south to north it stretches for over 900 km, and is just less than 500 km across in the widest part and 60 km in the narrowest.

The combined population of the British Isles-59.5 m/n people including that of the Republic Ireland makes the Islands one of the most densely populated parts of the earth's surface and the UK, at least, one of the most densely populated countries with nearly 57 million people.

The English Channel and the North Sea separate the British Isles from Europe. In the west they are washed by the Atlantic Ocean, in the east-by the North Sea. The two main islands - Great Britain and Ireland - are separated by the Irish Sea.



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Off the north-western coast of Great Britain there is a group of Islands known as the Hebrides ([hebridiz] - Гебридские острова). They are divided into the Inner and Outer Hebrides, the groups of Islands, separated from each other by the sea of Hebrides and the Little Minch.

Separated from the mainland by the stormy mile wide land there are the Orkneys Islands, comprising about a hundred Islands, though only a third are inhabited, by about 19.500 people. Most of the people are engaged in dairy and poultry farming, bacon, cheese and eggs are exported to central Scotland.

Situated about 70 miles north of Orkneys there are the Shetland Islands which provide thin, infertile soils suitable only for rough pasture. The total population is about 18.000.The Shetland farmers during the summer months are actively engaged in herring-fishing.

In the middle of the Irish Sea there is the Isle of Man (571 sq. km).The Island is administered by its own Parliament and has a population of about 50.000.Chiefly engaged is farming, fishing and Tourist trade.

Another important Island in the Irish Sea is Anglesey contains only 52.000 people and more of working population are now engaged in industry than in fishing and agriculture.

The Isle of Wight is in the English Channel. It is diamond-shaped 40 km from west to east, and about half as much from west to south. The Isle of Wight lies across the southern end of Southampton. With its sunny beaches and pleasant varied Countryside, the Island forms the South Coast's most important tourist resorts.

Of the extreme south-western coast of Great Britain there is a tiny group the Isles of Scilly.

The Channel Islands lie to the south-west on the French side of the English Channel. They are known to the French as the Isles Normandy’s, and their position can indeed be best seen from a map of North-West France than Southern England.


Читайте також:

  1. Exposition
  2. Read the texts about the British Queen for more information about Great Britain.
  3. Transposition of lexico-grammatical classes of nouns as stylistic device
  4. Transpositions

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