Types and forms of narrative. Represented speech (uttered, unuttered).
The ways of reproducing actual speech:
- direct speeсh - repetition of the exact utterance as it was spoken
- indirect speech - conversion of the exact utterance into the relater's mode of expression
- represented speech - representation of the actual utterance by a second person, usually the author, mental reproduction of a once uttered remark. It looks like indirect speech, but without traditional punctuation.
- represented unuttered or represented inner speech - the unuttered or inner speech of the character, his thoughts and feelings.
Represented (= reported) speech is a type of narration - is a form of utterance which conveys the actual words of the speaker through the mouth of the writer but retains the peculiarities of the speaker's mode of expression. Represented speech exists in two varieties: 1) uttered represented speech. E.g.: "Could he bring a reference from where he now was? He could.” (Dreiser); 2) unuttered or inner represented speech. E.g.: "An idea had occurred to Soames. His cousin Jolyon was Irene's
The author’s narrative (= the author’s speech) supplies the reader with direct information about the author’s preferences and objections, beliefs and contradictions, i.e. serves the major source of shaping up the author’s image. The unfolding of the plot is mainly concentrated here, personages are given characteristics, the time and the place of action are also described here, as the author sees them.
But in the modern prose the writer often hides behind the figure of the narrator, presents all the events of the story from the latter’s viewpoint and only sporadically emerges in the narrative with his own considerations, which may reinforce or contradict those expressed by the narrator. This form of the author’s speech is called entrusted narrative. Entrusted narrative can be carried out in the 1-st person singular, when the narrator proceeds with his story openly and explicitly, from his own name, as, e.g., in The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger. Entrusted narrative may also be anonymous. The narrator does not openly claim responsibility for the views and evaluations but the manner of presentation, the angle of description very strongly suggest that the story is told not by the author himself but by some of his personages.
The narrative, both the author’s and the entrusted, is not the only type of narration observed in creative prose. A very important place here is occupied by dialogue, where personages express their minds in the form of uttered speech. Dialogue is one of the most significant forms of the personage’s self-characterization.
Interior speech of the personage allows the author (and the readers) to look into the inner world of the character, to observe his ideas and views. Interior speech is best known in the form of interior monologue, a rather long piece of the text (half a page and over) dealing with one major thought of the character. Stream-of- consciousness technique is especially popular with representatives of modernism in contemporary literature.
The last but not least type of narration - represented (= reported) speech - is a mix of the viewpoints and language of both the author and the character. It was first observed and analysed almost a hundred years ago. Represented speech may be of two types: represented uttered speech, and represented inner speech. The latter is close to the personage’s interior speech in essence, but differs from it in form: it is rendered in the third person singular and may have the author’s qualitative words, i.e. it reflects the presence of the author’s viewpoint alongside that of the character, while interior speech belongs to the personage completely, formally too, which is materialized through the first-person pronouns and the language idiosyncrasies of the character.
According to its semantics the text may have three compositional narrative forms. They are: narrative proper, where the unfolding of the plot is concentrated.
This is the most dynamic compositional form of the text. Two other forms - description and argumentation - are static. All the compositional forms can be found in each of the types of narration (and in all functional styles) but with strongly varying frequencies and combinations.
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