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The Past Indefinite and the Past Perfect.

1. The Past Perfect is not used to denote a succession of actions. In this case the Past Indefinite is used.

The Past Indefinite is used with the conjunctions after, before, when if the relation between the actions approaches succession, i. e. when the idea of completion is of no importance.

 



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He went on with his work after he hada short rest.

He had a short rest before he wenton with his work.

When I wrotethe letter, I posted it.

 



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2. Verbs of motion and sense perception such as to come, to arrive, to return, to see, to hear, in adverbial clauses of time are generally used in the Past Indefinite and not in the Past Perfect. The actions are practically simultaneous.

 



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When he (Val) came down... he found his mother scrupulous in a low

evening dress... (Galsworthy)

When he heardthe first line of the poem, he recognized it at once.

 



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When the completion of the action is emphasized the Past Perfect is used.

 



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He knew the poem by heart when he had heardit several times.

 



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THE FUTURE PERFECT

 



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The formation of the Future Perfect.

1. The Future Perfect is formed by means of the Future Indefinite of the auxiliary verb to have and Participle II of the notional verb.

2. In the interrogative form the first auxiliary verb is placed before the subject.

In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the first auxiliary verb.

 



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Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I shall have worked He will have worked She will have worked We shall have worked You will have worked They will have worked Shall I have worked? Will he have worked? Will she have worked? Shall we have worked? Will you have worked? Will they have worked? I shall not have worked He will not have worked She will not have worked We shall not have worked You will not have worked They will not have worked

 

3. The contracted affirmative forms are:

 



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I’ll have worked

He’ll have worked

 



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The contracted negative forms are:

 



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I shan’t have worked

He won’t have worked

 



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4. The negative-interrogative forms are:

 



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{Will he not have worked?

Won’t he have worked?

{Shall we not have worked?

Shan’t we have worked?

 



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Читайте також:

  1. C. Choose the best alternative between Present simple and Present Perfect.
  2. Exercise 1. Поставьте глагол в главном предложении в Past Indefinite и сделайте необходимые преобразования в придаточном предложении.
  3. II. Open the brackets using the Past Continuous or Past Indefinite tenses. Entitle the text.
  4. Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect
  5. INDEFINITE GROUP OF TENSES
  6. Indefinite Tenses (Active)
  7. Open the brackets using the Present Indefinite or Present Continuous Tense.
  8. Other Classes of Pronouns (Interrogative, Indefinite, Relative)
  9. Passive Voice - Indefinite Tenses
  10. Past Indefinite (Simple)
  11. Present Indefinite Passive
  12. The formation of the Future Indefinite in the Past.




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The Past Indefinite and the Present Perfect. | The use of the Future Perfect.

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