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Basically education in Great Britain is divided into 2 groups: primary education, that is between the ages of ..and .. and secondary education, that's between the ages of ..and or . later in the.of A-level students.

Primary education is divided into 2 groups up to the age of 7, and then. .. students who are between the ages of 8 and 11. Secondary school education...is leading to one of two orthree possible , that is either..'s,..'s at O-level or 's at A-level. This of course differs .from the Scottish system of education which ................................................ to a system of highers rather than A-levels and a system ofrather than O-levels, and, in fact, lowers. .O-levels in the English educational system and Scottish highers correspond with A-levels in the educational system in England.

Basically, education in Great Britain is compulsory, it's compulsory up to the age of 16, and after that time it's usually the result of anbetween parents, students and the school as to..what course of

study will be ..

We don't really have any system of..................... education, there are a number of private. and.., but these are usually............................................................... by various., rather than a.group of people or run by the state, say, as they are here in Moscow.

., perhaps I could stop by telling a little bit about primary education in Great Britain. Primary schools to be..fairly small, schools up io about 2 or 3 hundred students. And they are usually in separate., as I have already.between infants and juniors. And what one is hoping in the infant education in Britain is that they will..the, development of locomotive skills going on to developing basicskills, basic.. and..skills These of course are developed and at junior school level, thebeing that at the age of 11 the child is ready to make what is a very important gap, a sort of., I suppose, at the age of 11 into secondary education.

Primary education in Great Britain is essentially on a.... .., that is, one class is by one teacher, and that teacher is for everything that that class of students does, be it.., be it , be it.., be itAnd it's very much in the hands of thisteacher for that year to decide on the curriculum and the way it is going to beThis doesn't mean to say that there isn't a sort of.policy of curriculum within the school, but that the teacher in fact within the classroom has a .. of personal responsibility and personal

This ................ in secondary education, when students find for the first time that they are to the school. Up to this.. they've been in a classroom with one teacher. At the age of 11 they go to a very different.., usually a much bigger school, often anything up to. .pupils in a..school, and there they are.to move around every 30 or 40 minutes .the ..., to go from one teacher to another.

And of course each teacher will be teaching them a . ..

And so this ............. that about at the age of 11 there's often .. ..for students, those students who find it difficult to understand why they are moving on or even the idea or the.of specialist subjects. This is because many primary school.have developed the system of ..., that is of having children of different ages .one class within the infant school between the ages of 5 and 7 in one class and then between the ages of 7 and 11 in one class in junior schools. And this means of course that suddenly they are with a very different.

Also, because of the nature of .within schools. It means that in primary education often, and more usually in primary education, certainly, in the, students are , that is, there are boys and girls in one class There are still schools at a higher level where students are sex.

So this is often a very important for them, when they are moving on from the.environment, often where mother is not far away from the local primary school, to a much larger institution, where suddenly for the first time they find they are.with a. of people, they areto. .the school, they are expected to various disciplines, and also with the problems of perhaps to stay in a for the first time which offers the outs of differenton the whole basis, on the whole organization of a school.

Now, what . the case, was that at the age of 11 or rather before it, the age often and a half or so, students took what was called the..Now, the 11 was an exam which was to decide which children would be more. .an academic and those to a education. In.this meant whether they will be going to a. ..school or to a..or school. Now, this in . ..had a very important..on one's .., because at that very early age one must think sorted out very .. into a certain category . And schools tended to provide..according to what they thought was the.of their.at the age of 11. This, of course, didn't always correspond with a child's. , that is, people at the age of 11 who were .for their age, passed 11+ and then found a .academical .. rather.. .., and, of course, for many children who at the age of 11 were.young for their age and were slotted into a school which really didn't stretch them enough.

Now, the idea of comprehensive schools and a policy of, being introduced in Britainthe last 15 years, since the last Major Labour government, was to it, in other words, to institute a system whereby there would be ..for all levels of students. And a comprehensive school, in fact, provides the whole.of education of all levels and within the same class. There is a policy in some comprehensive schools to have some kind of, .. the children, that is, into categories for specific subjects.. .. their ability in that subject, and we often use the word "sets" to . to tbe various . within a class or a particular. .of people. However, the policy now. is that the class should be taught at least until the third year, that is until the students are 13 to 14 they should be taught all together within their particular class group, the division of the classes is, usually, to get rid of the old idea of the ABCDE, which carried with it overtones of some kind of .. ..

Forms are now often. or.., rather, after their teacher's.. So, for instance, my name is Stanley, my first-year class of which I waswas called lS. And these letters went with that group of people..their school life and they remain within that class throughout their school life, at least though their secondary school life.

However, basically English education does .. .creaming off at various points, it still has a really producing an .., of one kind or..We try to couch it in other terms, but .we are arriving at various points at which certain people .. . of the system, and those who are left go on. This means that at about the age of 13 children are first..to make their..choices.




Now, these option . are for a variety of subjects, and within comprehensive school, a variety of levels. They are.what subjects they wish to take and at which level. Now, basically there are 2 levels of examination which is set at 15, these are GCE, the General Certificate of Education at level, that is GCE O-levels, often just called O-levels, and CSE's, that is the Certificate of Secondary Education, which is a . course, though not. less.(it often has a more.. component and a .. to its examination, I suppose, to A-level such as)

And students make their choice .with their parents, with their, with the .of the school, together with their teachers, of course, generally, in those various, recommendations are sent..And there is usually a .at which parents can come together with the various teachers to discuss the...for the child in..This does involve, of course, a very.series ofIt means that you may have awhere you have a hundred students, and not one of them is doingthe samein the same levels as another one. So it requires a very...................................................................... ............. under a series of., which a student to choose one option ..another option.

This, of course, is a..for a child to have to come to terms with. But it's very important because essentially ifeducation's about.., it's also about, and we doto specialize at a age, often into the division between.

This isn't soat this level, but certainly when one..beyond GCE's and CSE's, it becomes more and more marked, until by the time one . university, you reach a .. level.. a particular area of study. There's none of this sort ofof studies one gets in American universities, where students might be doing French, Spanish, Russian, and music. One just does not have this spread in English education, it's .and specialized.

However, basically thefor most people..at the age of 16, and this only.age ..students to leave school. Those which have reached 16 in the year of, let me seeit must be in the year of... the year which they are to leave, that is, the which they are to leave, or they are to leave at thetime, but mostly students have to stay until the end of theAs you may know, English education isinto 3 terms, that is, the..term or winter term, which .. from September to December, then there's a .for three weeks'., the spring term, which runs from the .until March or the beginning of April, there's then a for the Easter holidays, and then from the Easter time through until the .., the summer term, and it's at the that studentsleave in their sixteenth year.

Let's see whatafter that. At 16, of course, this means that onegroup of people..a.number of exams at a certain .What basically.. is those who have a..standard at., at.O-level, rather than., areto go on, to ..their Now, this . a further..At -level one expects students who are.to university and going ontheir A-levels before that, to.about 7 or 8. They take these exams, the results are.If theis good enough and people think that they oughta university, then they..They have to choose subjects, and usually theis madebetween sciences and . . One of the things that schools have schools to do is to offer a.., and so that now it is more..than it was before to sit, perhaps, 2.subjects and one art subject, although teachers and .at universities tend to prefer students to sit a.of subjects, such as are in some way.This means that one could take a group of art subjects, such as, well, in.., English, Geography and History, or a group of science subjects, such as , Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, each having a.idea of the . they wish to go, at university and..though, of course, this.specialization can lead to ..later, when a student at 18 suddenly realizes that he really does not want to.. medicine, and..all his.have been..him.that. Suddenly at 18 he finds that he is really., as it were, having the good group ofat a certain level, but not in the right subject areas.

However, those students who have gone through this system ... The CSE students- well, unfortunately, there is a sort of series of examinations CSE, - but really they aren't .., in a sense of getting a job. The system has grown up with., where obviously students . the idea of at school, that may have a bearing, but quite usually more than just general interest at a .level. Those students, of course, who..at 16 won't go into what we call the..

And sixth forms are divided into two an.and a.sixth form, the ..form being the first year of the sixth, the upper the..of the sixth. And it's athen, to O-level, to A-level, rather...er... in which students are preparing themselves for aof examinations in the summer before the for the university.

This means, that theythe exams in some time, .....June, the results are .. in the... August, and then one goes to the whole..of finding out what universityin time for the October, in fact, during the whole of the last year, the whole of the,this whole system ofthrough what's called UCCA, the University's Central Council of., of makingto universities. And the universities you..offer either a..place or a ..place at university. A conditional place is one at which they said we'd like you to come, but we areyou to get these.grades in your A-levels. This does lead to someof course, because, come August people haven't always got the right combinations ofwith the right combinations of

However, we are by now talking about the top..of the country. It is still a very small .of students thatto a university degree. But those that do go on into a..of undergraduate, A or BSc .. work. This is on a very much again than hitherto was the case. One's able to see a much of studies than was hitherto possible. But even so, there tends to be aarea. One talks of going to University toa subject, to read English, or to read history, or to read


Spanish, or to read medicine, or to read law, whatever that particular subject area it is. Now, sometimes thiswill have some kind of professionalIf one's reading for medicine, then the three years.as the first part of your..to be a doctor and you're.with working hospitals as a ..student. If you are going to read.then it counts as part one of a .. examination for becoming either a.or a.

If you are thinking of.., then the.is only used following its.as a subject, one takes one-year.. to get what's called a PGCE, that is a. which..somebody with a degree to teach a whole range of subjects, at whatever level is chosen to.

This isn't the only way of, in fact, becoming a teacher in England, there is a passing whereby having such O-levels or A-levels rather than go to university some people.to do a three-year.course. Now, at one stage this used to beas rather lower level than university, but now teachers who opt to go and train this way often take a..that is they.what's called a BEd, a,rather than a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science. And a BEd course is usually 3, 3 to 4 years. And it's training a teacher in a specific subject area, rather than the more wide that are to a.. student, leading to a teachingand the degree status, of course.

1. Answer the questions:

1) Who is the speaker?

2) How can his manner of speech be characterized

a) phonetically

b) from the point of view of vocabulary choice

c) from the point of view of grammar and structure?

3) What factors account for these peculiarities?



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