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GLOSSARY

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1.adjudicate (v.) - to make a formal judgement on a disputed matter

e.g. The case was adjudicated in the High Court.

2.appoint(v.) – to choose formally for a job or an official position.

e.g. The Prime Minister has appointed a civilian as defence minister.

3.comply with (v.) to act in accordance with what is required

e.g. We are unable to comply with your request.

4.contradict(v.) to be in conflict with

e.g. The result seems to contradict a major U.S. study reported last November.

5.court of appeals (n.) court to which appeals are taken in a federal circuit or a state

e.g. The Court of Appeal has clarified its position.

6.court of first instance (n.) a court in which legal proceedings are begun or first heard

e.g. Unusual for Russian patent disputes, the court of first instance did not follow the conclusions of the forensic examination.

7.determine(v.)to ascertain or establish exactly

e.g. The point of our study was to determine what is true, not what is practicable.

8.dispute (n.) an argument or disagreement between people or groups.e.g. Negotiators failed to resolve the dispute between the European Community and the United States.

9.experience (n.) the knowledge or skill acquired by such means over time, especially that gained in a particular profession

e.g. He has also had managerial experience on every level.

10. general jurisdiction (adj.+n.) – the court's authority to hear all kinds of cases, which arise within its geographic area.

e.g. A court of general jurisdiction is one that can hear different types of cases like a tort case, a contracts law case, or any number of other related cases.

11. govern(v.) — conduct the policy, actions, and affairs of (a state, organization, or people)

e.g. He was incapable of governing the country.

12. harm (n.) - the damage done to someone.

e.g. The newspaper report has done a lot of harm to the firm's reputation

13. hear (a case) (v.) – to listen to a case officially in order to make a decision about it



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e.g. He had to wait months before his case was heard.

14. interpret (v.) – to explain the meaning of (information or actions)

e.g. The evidence is difficult to interpret.

15. invalid (adj.) — not legally recognized and therefore void because contravening a regulation or law

e.g. The vote was declared invalid due to a technicality.

16. issue (n.) - subject of a dispute.

e.g. Issue arises from a plea in a criminal court.

17. issue (v.) - to put out or to give out.

e.g. The government issued a report on London's traffic.

18. judgment(n.) a decision of a court or judge

e.g. The Court is expected to give its judgement within the next ten days.

19. judicial (adj.) – relating to the legal system and to judgements made in a court of law

e.g. There are many officers of the court, including jurors, but the Prosecutor General remains the most powerful component of the Russian judicial system.

20. judiciary (n.) – the judicial branch of government, the court system, or judges collectively

e.g. The judiciary must think very hard before jailing non-violent offenders.

21. nomination(n.) – an official suggestion of someone as a candidate in an election or for a job.

e.g. Women's groups opposed the nomination of the judge.

22. obligatory (adj.) — having binding force

e.g. These laws are obligatory

23 proceedings (n.) — legal action taken against someone

e.g. Criminal proceedings were brought against him

24. protect (v.) - to defend something against harm.

e.g. The workers are protected from unfair dismissal by government legislation.

25. prosecutor(n.) – a person, esp. a public official, who institutes legal proceedings against someone

e.g. The prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution in countries with the civil law inquisitorial system.

26. provide(v.) – to state

e.g. The Act provides that only the parents of a child have a responsibility for that child's financial support.

27. punish (v.) - to make someone suffer for a crime which he has committed.

e.g. You will be punished for hitting the policeman.

28. resolve(v.) – to make a decision by a formal vote

e.g. Who has the power to resolve disputes between states?

29. review (cases) (v.) – to submit (a case, etc.) for reconsideration by a higher court or authority

e.g. The Attorney General asked the court to review the sentence.

30. rule of law (n.) – a) a situation in which the people in a society obey its laws and enable it to function properly

e.g. I am confident that we can restore peace, stability and respect for the rule of law.

b) a legal principle

e.g. The European Court has thus established an important legal principle.

31. supervision (n.) – the observing and directing of the execution of (a task or activity)

e.g. First-time license holders have to work under supervision.

32. supreme court (n.) – the highest court in the country

e.g. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States.

33. trial court (n.) — a court of law where cases are tried in the first place, as opposed to an appeal court

e.g. A trial court or court of first instance is a court in which trials take place.

34. veto (v.) – to exercise a constitutional right to reject a decision or proposal made by a law-making body

e.g. The president vetoed the bill.

 

 


UNIT 3


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Writing. Comparing and Contrasting. | THE LEGAL CAREERS IN GREAT BRITAIN

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