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GLOSSARY

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1. adversarial (adj.) – involving people who are in opposition and who make attacks on each other.

e.g. The adversarial nature of the two-party system; the adversarial system of justice.

2. arbiter (n.) - a person who with the power or influence to make judgments and decide what will be done or accepted.

e.g. The law is the final arbiter of what is considered obscene.

3. assault (n.) - an act of criticizing somebody severely.

e.g. The paper's assault on the president was totally unjustified.

4. bailiff (n.) – an official who keeps order in a court of law, takes people to their seats, watches prisoners, etc.

e.g. The work of bailiff is very hard.

5. breach (n.) - a failure to do something that must be done by law.

e.g. They are in breach of Article 119.

6. breach (v.) - to not keep to an agreement or not keep a promise.

e.g. The government is accused of breaching the terms of the treaty.

7. burden of proof (n.) - the task or responsibility of proving that something is true.

e.g. The burden of proof lies on the prosecution.

8. claim (v.) – to ask for money from the government or a company because you have a right to it.

e.g. She claimed damages from the company for the injury she had suffered.

9. claimant (n.) – a person who claims something because they believe they have a right to it.

e.g. The claimant hoped to settle the case out of court.

10. compensation (n.) – something, especially money, that somebody gives you because they have hurt you, or damaged something that you own; the act of giving this to somebody.

e.g. To claim/award/receive compensation.

11. complain (v.) - to say that you are not satisfied about something.

e.g. The defendant complained of intimidation during the investigation.

12. complaint (n.) - the act of complaining.

e.g. I can see no grounds for complaint.

13. contestant (n.) – a person who takes part in a contest.

e.g. Please, welcome our next contestant.

14. contract (n.) – an official written agreement.



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e.g. To enter into/make/sign a contract with the supplier.

15. counterclaim (n.) –a cross-claim brought by a defendant in civil proceedings that asserts an independent cause of action but is not also a defence to the claim made in the action by the plaintiff.

e.g. Amid all the claims and counterclaims it was hard to say who was telling the truth.

16. damages (n.) – an amount of money that is paid to somebody by the person, company, etc. that has caused them harm or injury.

e.g. He was ordered to pay damages.

17. defamation (n.) – the act of causing harm to somebody by saying or writing bad or false things about them.

e.g. The company sued for defamation.

18. defendant (n.) – a person in a court of law who is accused of committing a crime, or who is being sued by another person.

e.g. A defendant is required to answer the complaint.

19. determine (v.) - to officially decide or arrange something.

e.g. The court determined that the defendant should pay the legal costs.

20. intervene (v.) – (in something) to become involved in a situation in order to improve or help it.

e.g. The President intervened personally in the crisis.

21. libel (n.) – a defamatory statement made in permanent form such as writing

e.g. He sued the newspaper for libel.

22. negligence (n.) – the failure to give somebody/something enough care or attention.

e.g. The accident was caused by negligence on the part of the driver.

23. nuisance (n.) – behavior by somebody that annoys other people and that a court of law can order the person to stop.

e.g. He was charged with causing a public nuisance.

24. obligations (n.) - something what you must do because you have promised, because of law

e.g. They reminded him of his contractual obligations.

25. outline the case (v.) – to give a description of the main facts or points involved in something.

e.g. The plaintiff outlined the case.

26. persuade (v.) - to make somebody believe that is true by giving them good reasons for doing it.

e.g . It will be difficult to persuade them that there is no other choice.

27. prove (v.) - to use facts, evidence, etc. to show that something is true.

e.g. They hope this new evidence will prove her innocence.

28. remedy (n.) – any of the methods available at law for the enforcement, protection, or recovery of rights or for obtaining redress for their infringement.

e.g. What’s my remedy in law in this case?

29. slander (n.) - a defamatory statement made by such means as spoken words.

e.g. He’s suing them for slander.

30. sue (v.)- to make a claim against somebody in a court of law about something that they have said or done to harm you.

e.g. They threatened to sue if the work was not completed.

31. suit (n.)- a claim or complaint against somebody that a person or an organization can make in a court of law.

e.g. He filed a lawsuit against his company.

32. tort (n.) – a wrongful act or omission for which damages can be obtained in a civil court.

e.g. There are important differences between torts and crimes.

33. tortfeasor (n.) –one who commits a tort.

e.g. The police cannot take any action unless the tortfeasor commits a certain crime.

34. tortious (adj.) –having the nature of a tort/ wrongful.

e.g. The plaintiff has to show that he has suffered an action recognized as a tortious one and he must show that has relation to the tortfeasor.

35. tresspass (v.) – to enter land or a building that you do not have permission or right to enter.

e.g. He told me I was trespassing on private land.

 

 



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