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Tom's Uncle Philip was a scientist and an inventor. He carried out hisresearch in the field of chemistry. He'd been interested in chemistry since his childhood. He made a lot of discoveries and evenreceived the Nobel Prize in chemistry. But he was a strange man, he lived alone,had no wife or friends. Once when he was quite old and seriously ill hesent for his nephew. Here it must be explained that this was the first timeTom and his uncle met. Many years earlier Philip had had a big quarrel with hissister, Tom's mother, and since then he had steadily refused to sec them.
When Tom came to see him, Uncle Philip waslying ill in bed. "I am a rich man," he said, "and I'm determined to leaveall my fortune to you. You will find it in an iron box in the bank. But before you open the box you must read the letter which is on top of it"Soon hisuncle died After Uncle Philip's death Tom went to the bank. Before he started to open the box, he read the letter. Here is what it said:
This box contains a great fortune. I am leaving it to you because I want you always to remember your dear uncle. The box also contains powerful dynamite which will explode as soon as you open it. If you do not believe me, open it and you will be blown into atoms.
Do not forget your uncle."
From that time on Tom could think of nothing but the box and the fortune. He asked everyone for advice. But nobody could think of a safe enough plan.
2. A Family of Scientists
George Boole was bom in 1815 and be is famous for his works in the field of mathematical analysis. His wife Магу Everest was a niece of George Everest. He is known as the man who performed a topographic survey of India on a large scale in 1841. It is alter him that the highest peak in the world is named. Mary Everest was very much interested in her husband's
work and after his death she published several books which contnbuted greatly to the development of his theory. The Booles had five daughters. The eldest daughter Mary married C. Hinton who was a well-known mathematician, inventor and author of science-fiction bodes.
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Their three grandchildren became scientists. Howard was a talented entomologist, William and Joan were both physicists. The latter was almost
the only woman physicist who worked on the atomic project in the USA. Their second daughter Margaret is known as the mother of the outstanding English mathematician Jeffrey Taylor who was a foreign member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. Their third daughter Alicia Taylor was
a specialist in the field of multidimensional space. The fourth daughter Lucy was the first woman-professor who was the head of a chemistry department. But the youngest daughter Ethel Lilian is the most famous. She married the Polish scientist and revolutionary Voynich. Her wonderful book The Gadfly has been translated into many languages and is popular in many countries of the world.
UNIT 5 Ex. 7
1. A system of words used by the people of one country as a means of communication, (language)
2. A spoken or written test organized by teachers in order to check students' knowledge in this or that subject, (examination)
3. A science which is concerned with the study of matter and natural forces, (physics)
4. The study or science of numbers and calculations. (mathematics)
5. A useful thing or idea which is produced by scientists for the first time.
6. The study of the events of a nation's past. These events are usually arranged in order from the earlier time to the later. The events concern the rulers, the governments and the people, (history)
7 The whole world around us: trees, rivers, lakes, animals and so on
8 Something gained through skill or hard work, (achievement)
9. A system of special tracks for trains with locomotives and stations.
10. The passing of seconds, minutes, days, weeks, months taken as a whole. (time)
11. Water in its state as a gas, produced by boiling at the temperature of 100 degrees, (steam)
12. A black or dark brown mineral found deep in the earth. It can be burnt to produce heat. Gas and other products can be made of this mineral, (coal)
13. An underground or underwater passage for an automobile road or railway. Very often it is buili through or under a hill, a river, a town or a mountain, (tunnel)
14. Heavy firm earth. When it is wet it is soft, but it becomes hard when it is heated to a high temperature. Many things are made of it, for example, cups, plates and bricks, (clay)
15. Flat pieces of bread with some cold food between them. It is eaten with your hands, (sandwich)
16. Knowledge or skill which comes from practice rather than books. (experience)
17. A trial or a test which is made,usually by scientists,to leam something or to prove a scientific idea, (experiment)
18. The movement of people or vehicles along the streets or roads, the movement of ships in the seas, the movement of planes in the sky. (traffic)
19. The rate of movement. In other words, it is the distance travelled divided by the time of travel, (speed)
20 A measure of length which is equal to about 30.5 cm. (foot)
21. Something unpleasant, undesirable or damaging that happens quite unexpectedly or by chance, (accident)
22. The study of knowledge which can be made into a system and which depends on seeing, understanding and testing facts, (science)
23. Finding something which existed before but was not known to people. It is often a place or a scientific fact. (discovery)
24. The act of interpretation with the help of words, pictures, and gestures, (explanation)
25. A difficulty that needs attention and thought, (problem)
Key to Ex. 8
Edison is known as one of the greatest inventors of his time. He invented so much that it is difficult to say which of his achievements is the greatest. He was an experimentor and a practical man more than a theoretician
Edison did not have any education. He went to school for only three months. Then he left because the teacher considered him a dull boy. His mother became his teacher The boy loved books and his mother said that he had a wonderful memory. When he first visited a public library and saw a lot of shelves with books he decided that he would read all of them and then he would know everything in the world. He measured the shelf and decided to read a foot of books every week.
In 1868 Edison built his first patented invention - an electromagnetic device.
It is said that he planned to ask three thousand dollars for his invention, though he secretly decided he would sell it for two thousand if necessary He was invited to a meeting of businessmen who were interested in buying
his invention, but when he was asked to name a price he was very nervous and quite unable to speak.
"It is no use asking us a big price," said one of the businessmen,"we've already decided how much we will pay. Forty thousand dollars is our
With this money Edison established a workshop and began his career as a professional inventor at the age of twenty-two.
All his inventions were the result of hard work. He sometimes conducted thousands of experiments. According to him, the idea that a genius works only by inspiration was absurd. "Genius is 2 per cent inspiration and 98 per cent perspiration," he often said
2. Inventors and Their Inventions
Samuel Colt was an American. He lived m the 19th century. In 1836 he designed and patented a pistol. It was a pistol with a revolving chamber that could fire six bullets one after another. It was the first pistol of its kind. Later came along many other pistols with six bullets.
Rudolf Diesel was a German engineer. He was born in 1858 and died in 1913. In 1897 he invented a new internal combustion engine. The engine is known as a diesel and it began a transport revolution in cars, trucks, trains
and ships. The main advantage of diesels is that they run on rather cheap fuel.
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