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Officer Training System
The officer corps of the United States consists of members of the military of various categories of military occupational specialties, which accounts for different characteristics of their education, training, performance of military service, financial support, etc. The US military leadership sees making its personnel policy with regard to the organization of the officer corps measured up to modern requirements as an ingredient of utmost importance for the force development process, the main goal of which is to provide all the services with highly professional military personnel in time of war or peace.
Recognized as the most important is the task of training command (officer) personnel with high professional and moral qualities and able to lead their subordinates in changed conditions. At the same time, each member of the military should be able, as and when they wish, to get training to qualify for civilian jobs. The acquisition of personnel, including officer personnel, for the US armed forces is the responsibility of the personnel bodies of the DOD and the departments of the armed services, which, under the guidance of corresponding aides to their secretaries for personnel and their staffs, determine the number of personnel they require and draw up annual enlistment plans. The acquisition of manpower and personnel training in the armed forces and the other personnel related matters is the responsibility of corresponding directorates of the armed services' staffs and their commands.
The officer corps of regular armed forces is made up of the graduates of service academies (up to 10 percent additional officers annually), officer training service schools (Army and Navy officer candidate schools and the Air Force officer training school) and a large proportion (up to 40 percent of additional officers a year) of reserve officers who completed the ROTC (Reserve Officers' Training Corps) programs. The officer corps is also augmented by NCOs and certain categories of civilian specialists who complete corresponding military training courses and receive commission, and reserve officers wishing to go back to the military service.
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During the course of their service the officers upgrade their military, special and general knowledge by attending various courses in military training centers and schools of the services, military universities, colleges and institutes, civilian higher schools or studying by correspondence.
The military academies of the basic services (West Point – the U.S. Army, Colorado Springs – the US Air Force, and Annapolis – the US Navy) are the main military educational institutions training career officers. The course of education and training is four years. The average number of cadets is 3,400 and up to 1,000 graduates every year. Graduates are awarded the degree of Bachelor of Science and commissions as primary-rank officers. As a rule, they are assigned to the services they have been trained for.
Established in 1802 by an act of Congress, the U.S. Army Military Academy is located in West Point, N.Y. To gain admission a candidate must first secure a nomination from a member of Congress or the Department of the Army. Appointments (offers of admission), however, can only be made to a very small number of applicants, about 1,150 to 1,200 each year. Candidates may be nominated for vacancies during the year preceding the day of admission, which occurs in late June or early July.
The U. S. Naval Academy was founded in 1845 by the Secretary of the Navy, George Bancroft, in what is now historic Annapolis, MD. It gives young men and women the up-to-date academic and professional training needed to be effective naval and marine officers in their assignments after graduation. Every day the Naval Academy strives to accomplish its mission to develop midshipmen “morally, mentally, and physically”.
Since opening its doors in 1954, the U.S. Air Force Academy produces officers who have the knowledge, character and motivation essential to leadership, pride in all they do and, above all else, commitment to their careers in the Air Force. Designed for the future, the campus boasts state-of-the-art facilities, including laboratories, observatories and a library containing over 700,000 volumes.
Reserve officers are trained at the ROTC programs that provide four- and two-year training and are attached to many universities and colleges of the country. The programs are fully funded by the government and, although they are intended for training college and university students as reserve officers, they are a major source of carrier officers, especially in time of peace, because nearly 40 percent of those who complete the four-year programs become officers in the regular armed services.
The ROTC offer programs to individual services: officers for the Army are trained by 300 universities and colleges of the United States; officers for the Navy, by 65; officers for the Marine Corps, by 60. ROTC military subjects instructors and teachers are mainly officers and NCOs of the regular services but they can also be officers and NCOs of the reserve. Enrolling in the programs, students sign contracts undertaking to serve a certain number of years in the reserves (or if such an offer is made) in the regular forces. The programs give them only general military training without any military occupational specialty.
Before being assigned to duty stations, the officers undergo specialization courses at schools (centers) of the services in their field for between four and eight weeks.
Officers' training schools train civilians completing full curricula in civilian colleges as officers for the services at the rate of between 2,000 and 3,000 a year. The curricula at the Army, Air Force, Navy and Marines schools are 14, 12, 16 and 10 weeks respectively. There are also schools to train officers for the Army National Guard and the Air National Guard.
Military educational institutions intended for refresher or advanced training run different curricula in the training centers and schools of the services for officers with 10 years in service. There are also command staff colleges for officers with between 10 and 15 years in service. The number of training centers, schools, refresher and advanced training curricula for officers varies with the situation and the armed services' needs for experts. The length of training in the curricula depends on the specialty and can be between several weeks and 18 months. Training in command staff colleges (Army Command Staff College, Command Staff Colleges of the Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps and a Staff College of the Armed Forces) is between five and ten months. Each college graduates every year between 300 and 500 officers trained and qualified for duty assignments in battalions, regiments, brigades and divisions.
Military higher educational institutions for general officers (generals and admirals) include the War, Air Force and Navy colleges and the National Defense University. The latter is comprised of several colleges: the National War College, Industrial College of the Armed Forces, Joint Forces Staff College, School for National Security Executive Education, and Information Resources Management College.
NDU, the premier center for joint professional military education, is under the direction of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The University is located at Ft. McNair in Washington, DC.
The colleges of the NDU train command personnel for the division-corps-joint-command level and generals and admirals for work in the central system of departments of the armed services and the DOD. The duration of training is 10 months. Every college trains up to 200 people a year. In addition to the above, the US armed services have a number of specialized military educational institutions: the Defense Language Institute, a college of military intelligence, a school of information and propaganda, a school of cartography, and so on.
1. What is the ingredient of utmost importance in the US personnel policy?
2. What are the main ways to produce officers in the USA?
3. How many military academies are there in the USA?
4. Is there any advanced training for officers?
5. What is the difference between refresher and advanced training?
6. What is the mission of the NDU?
7. What is the NDU comprised of?
USNA; USMA; USAFA; NDU; CJCS; DLI; DOD; ROTC; NCO; JFSC
Appointment; with regard to the organization of the officer corps; armed services' needs for experts; commitment to one’s career in the Air Force; corresponding aides to the secretaries for personnel and their staffs; division-corps-joint-command level; essential; US military leadership; duration of training; enrollment in the programs; joint professional military education; major source of carrier officers; state-of-the-art; military educational institution; military occupational specialty; military universities, colleges and institutes; to attend various courses; to be made up of the graduates; to develop midshipmen morally, mentally, and physically; in time of war or peace; to meet the requirements; to produce officers; to run different curricula; to sign а contract; to undergo specialization courses; force development; to undertake to serve a certain number of years in the reserves.
Оперативно-тактична ланка; в мирний або воєнний час; проходити курси зі спеціалізації; вивчати інші предмети; готувати офіцерів; військове керівництво США; відповідати вимогам; військовий навчальний заклад; забезпечувати моральний, інтелектуальний та фізичний розвиток курсантів; стосовно формування офіцерського корпусу; складатися з випускників; відвідувати різні курси; потреби видів ЗС у фахівцях; підписувати контракт; військові університети, коледжі та інститути; військово-облікова спеціальність; найсучасніший; основне джерело набору офіцерів кадру; приймати рішення відслужити кілька років у резерві; розвиток збройних сил; загальна професійна військова освіта; вступ на навчання; термін підготовки; життєво важливий; відповідні помічники міністрів з кадрової роботи та їх апарати; відданість службі в ВПС; призначення.
Вислуга років; acquisition of personnel; стосовно формування офіцерського корпусу; admission; Військовий коледж СВ; advanced training; військове керівництво США; Air Force War College; сучасна освіта та професійна підготовка; Air Force officer training school; училище СВ США у Вест-Пойнті; to complete programs; училище ВПС США; applicant; складати щорічні плани набору; to qualify for civilian jobs; визначати чисельність особового складу; Army Officer Candidate School; завершувати навчання; campus; підпорядковуватися голові ОКНШ; career officer; згідно із сучасними вимогами; college of military intelligence; оплачуватися; command personnel; складатися з; command staff college; одержувати ступінь бакалавра природничих наук; curriculum; училище ВМС США; to be under the direction of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; підготовка; Defense Language Institute; удосконалювати військові, спеціальні та загальні знання; during the course of one’s service; отримати рекомендацію від члена Конгресу або з міністерства СВ; duty assignment; мати цивільну спеціальність; education; вести за собою підлеглих; to determine the number of personnel; поповнюватися; входити до складу багатьох університетів та коледжів; to lead subordinates; призначатися в регулярні частини; facility; виконувати завдання; financial support; заочне навчання; general military training; спеціалізований військовий навчальний заклад; highly professional military personnel; військове училище виду ЗС; to be attached to many universities and colleges; школа інформації та пропаганди; школа картографії; Industrial College of the Armed Forces; школа підготовки національних керівників в галузі безпеки; Information Resources Management College; корпус підготовки офіцерів резерву; ingredient of utmost importance; офіцер резерву; Joint Forces Staff College; регулярні збройні сили; to accomplish one’s mission; перепідготовка; to be assigned to duty stations; первинне звання; to be measured up to modern requirements; підготовка особового складу; manpower; кадрова політика; midshipman; кадрові органи; military academy; характер проходження військової служби; military higher educational institution; видова школа підготовки офіцерів; to be funded military training center; офіцерський склад; military training course; офіцерський корпус; National Defense University; школа підготовки офіцерів ВМС; officer corps; військово-морський коледж; officer personnel; національний військовий коледж; officer training service school; національний університет оборони; Navy officer candidate school; курс військової підготовки; performance of military service; військовий навчальний центр; personnel bodies; вищий військовий навчальний заклад; National War College; військове училище; personnel policy; курсант училища ВМС; personnel training; особовий склад; primary rank; загальновійськовий штабний коледж; Navy college; найважливіша складова; refresher training; коледж управління інформаційними ресурсами; regular armed forces; військово-промисловий коледж; to be augmented by; to be comprised of; високопрофесійний особовий склад; reserve officer; загальна військова підготовка; Reserve Officers' Training Corps; School for National Security Executive Education; фінансове забезпечення; school of cartography; спеціально обладнане приміщення; to be awarded the degree of Bachelor of Science; U. S. Naval Academy; навчання; school of information and propaganda; призначення на посаду; service academy; під час проходження служби; to secure a nomination from a member of Congress or the Department of the Army; Інститут іноземних мов МО США; specialized military educational institution; предмети для вивчення; командно-штабний коледж; studying by correspondence; командний склад; to upgrade one’s military, special and general knowledge; коледж військової розвідки; training; кадровий офіцер; U.S. Air Force Academy; курсантське містечко; up-to-date academic and professional training; школа підготовки офіцерів СВ; US military leadership; абітурієнт; U.S. Army Military Academy at West Point; школа підготовки офіцерів ВПС; to draw up annual enlistment plans; військово-повітряний коледж; War college; підвищення кваліфікації; зарахування; years in service; набір особового складу.
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