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Officer Promotion System
The centralized officer promotion system is governed by procedures based on statute (Title 10, United States Code), Army Regulation (AR 600-8-29, Officer Promotions) and policy established by the Secretary of the Army and the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel. The selection system is closely monitored and managed because of the far-reaching effects that the selection process has on the mission of the Army, and the professional development, morale and well-being of the officer corps.
The objectives of the Army promotion system are: filling of position spaces with qualified personnel; provision for career progression and rank which is in line with potential; preclusion of promoting the serviceperson who is not productive or not best qualified; provision of an equitable system for all servicepeople; recognition of the best qualified servicepeople which will attract and retain the highest caliber soldier in the Armed Forces.
The basic concept of the promotion selection system is to select for promotion those officers who have demonstrated that they possess the professional and moral qualifications, integrity, physical fitness, and ability required to successfully perform the duties expected of an officer in the next higher grade. Promotion is not intended to be a reward for long, honorable service in the present grade, but is based on overall demonstratedperformance and potential abilities.
Promotion selection is conducted fairly and equitably by boards composed of mature, experienced, senior officers. Each board consists of different members, and women and minority members are routinely appointed. A typical board is presided over by a general officer and consists of 18-21 officers in a grade senior to that of those being considered for promotion. The board membership reviews the entire performanceportion of the official record of every officer being considered for promotion. Selection boards recommend those officers who, in the collective judgment of the board, are the best qualified for promotion. The promotion selection boards are not authorized by law to divulge the reasons for selection or nonselection of any officer.
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Each officer can be assured that he or she receives fair and equitable consideration. Nonselection for promotion does not imply that an officer has not performed in an admirable manner or that the Army does not value the service performed. Officers not selected for promotion are not precluded from consideration by future boards, provided they meet the eligibility criteria established for consideration.
An officer may request reconsideration for promotion when an action, by a regularly scheduled selection board which considered him or her for promotion, was contrary to law or involvedmaterial error.
The recommendations for promotion come from the unit commander through the officer’s chain of command. If duty is performed under other than the unit commander to whom assigned foradministration, recommendation will be endorsed by administrative unit commander.
There are general terms of military service in all armed services of the United States that should be served before getting one's next rank. The length of service before getting the rank of First Lieutenant is 18 months to two years; Captain, three and a half to four years; Major, ten years; Lieutenant Colonel, 15 years; Colonel, 22 years.
In awarding next ranks they proceed from the availability of openings in specific military occupational specialties, number of years in the previous rank, educational and professional levels, references from higher commanding officers, results of proficiency rating tests, efficiency reports, awards, commendations and other factors.
Second Lieutenants get their next rank virtually automatically. The ranks that follow up to Colonel are awarded on the basis of decisions of selection boards and the above factors. Junior and senior grade officers are awarded their next ranks by the secretaries of the services. The ranks Brigadier General and Major General are conferred by the President. The ranks Lieutenant General, General, General of the Army, General of the Air Force, Fleet Admiral are conferred by the President subject to Senate approval. The latter three can be awarded for especially outstanding services.
Colonels (Captains) selected for being awarded general-officer ranks are supposed to undergo special training for senior officers at a national military college.
During the process of service, all US armed forces officers are periodically rated for their efficiency. Second Lieutenants and First Lieutenants are rated once every six months. Captains and officers of higher rank are rated once every year. As a rule the rating is done by the immediate superiors with the participation of direct superiors, who endorse the results, and with the participation of the higher headquarters that monitor the correctness and objectivity of efficiency rating procedures.
Decisions of the efficiency-rating board is endorsed by the chief of staff of an armed service and forwarded to the Secretary of Defense who submits it to the President.
US Armed Forces practice periodic transfers of officers (every two or three years, as a rule) in accordance with their ranks and positions from command positions to administrative or teaching positions and vice versa, alternating service in the troops with the work in staffs and central administrative offices.
It should be mentioned that the number of senior officers in US armed forces is determined by Congress every year by special enactments. This number varies with the total strength of the armed forces, their structure, effective combat strength and is established on the average on the basis of five or six generals and admirals per 10,000 servicemen of the regular forces.
An important element of personnel policy is organization of an efficient welfare system that includes pay and allowances, provision of housing, clothing allowances, medical care and pension benefits. Pay is the main material incentive to the military personnel. Its size varies with the officers' pay grade and the years of service and is comprised of the monthly basic pay, main allowances (housing and food), special and incentive payments. However, in recent years, with cutbacks and downsizing, more captains have been opting out rather than waiting to be considered for promotion to major.
1. What are the objectives of the officer promotion system?
2. What is the foundation of the officer promotion system?
3. Is the selection process open for public?
4. Who issues recommendation for promotion of an officer?
5. What types of authority for promotion do you know?
SA; DCSP; AR; USC; MOS; Lt Col;
Administration; administrative unit commander; basic concept; Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel; effective combat strength; eligibility criteria; entire performance; far-reaching effects; general terms; higher grade; in the collective judgment of the board; mature; number of years; officer’s chain of command; officers' pay grade; potential abilities; preclusion; productive; recognition; regulation; reward; Secretary of the Army; specific military occupational specialty; statute; the highest caliber soldier; title; to assure; to be authorized by law; to be closely monitored; to be comprised of; to be contrary to law; to be governed by procedures; to be in line with; to be managed; to be periodically rated; to be precluded from consideration; to divulge the reasons; to endorse; to establish a policy; to forward to the Secretary of Defense; to opt out; to preside over; to receive fair and equitable consideration; to request reconsideration; to submit something to the President; to undergo special training; to value the service; total strength of the armed forces; United States Code; virtually automatically.
Загальна чисельність збройних сил; цінити службу; проходити спеціальну підготовку; подавати на розгляд президенту; вимагати перегляду кандидатури; розглядатися справедливо та неупереджено; майже автоматично; Кодекс законів США; головувати; робити вибір щодо залишення військової служби; направляти міністру оборони; встановлювати порядок; затверджувати; розголошувати причини; запобігати розгляду; періодично атестуватися; керуватися; узгоджуватися; визначатися процедурами; протирічити закону; складатися з; перебувати під щільним контролем; бути вповноваженим законом; запевнювати; розділ; солдат найвищого гатунку; статут; певна військово-облікова спеціальність; міністр СВ; винагорода; положення; визнання; за умови; продуктивний; перепона; потенційні можливості; штатно-посадова категорія; командна ланка; вислуга років; зрілий; за загальною думкою ради; вища категорія; загальні терміни; далекосяжний вплив; службова характеристика за весь період служби офіцера; критерії відповідності; наявна чисельність особового складу регулярних формувань; заступник начальника штабу з кадрової роботи; основне положення; командир підрозділу; куди приписано військовослужбовця; ведення справ.
Система просування по службі офіцерського складу; to be subject to Senate approval; професійний розвиток; to be conferred by the President; моральний стан; in an admirable manner; добробут; to be routinely appointed; кар’єрний ріст; to be conducted fairly and equitably; рівноправна система; to possess professional and moral qualifications; система відбору для просування по службі; to fill position spaces with qualified personnel; morale; чесність; downsizing; фізична підготовленість; reduction; бездоганна служба; main allowances; виконання службових обов’язків; monthly basic pay; рада з відбору; material incentive; член меншини; pension benefit; особова справа; medical care; канцелярська помилка; clothing allowance; рекомендація для просування по службі; наявність вакантних посад; provision of housing; перевірка службової придатності; allowance; атестація; pay; подання; welfare system; особливо визначні досягнення; special enactment; безпосередній начальник; periodic transfers; прямий начальник; higher headquarters; вище командування; direct superior; періодичні переведення; immediate superior; спеціальний нормативний акт; especially outstanding services; побутові умови; commendation; грошове забезпечення; efficiency report; виплата на забезпеченння житлом; proficiency rating test; виплата на одержання форми одягу; availability of openings; медичне забезпечення; recommendation for promotion; додаткова виплата до пенсії; material error; матеріальний стимул; official record; місячний оклад; minority members; основні виплати; selection board; скорочення; performance; зменшення чисельності; honorable service; заповнювати вакантні посади кваліфікованим особовим складом; physical fitness; мати професійні та моральні якості; integrity; поводитися справедливо та об’єктивно; promotion selection system; призначатися в загальному порядку; equitable system; бездоганно; career progression; присуджуватися президентом; well-being; professional development; підлягати затвердженню Сенатом; officer promotion system.
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