Aims of Law


Law has several aims. They are concerned with making society more stable. The Law forbids certain ways of behaving like murder, blackmail, etc. and requires others, like paying taxes. Laws guarantee to people that the state will, if necessary, enforce sanctions.

One more aim is to settle disputes about what the law is and whether it has been broken. Taking these three aims together, we see that law not only threatens and punishes those who do what it forbids but promises to protect peoples interests. It imposes restrictions on people but also gives them certain guarantees.



Task 1. Answer the questions.

1.What are the aims of law concerned with?

2.What does the law forbid?

3.In what cases does the law impose restrictions on people?

4.What functions does the law serve?



Text 3.

Systems of Law

Every independent country has its own legal system. But most systems can he classed as either a common-law system or a civil-law system. Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, Great Britain (except Scotland), The United States, and other English speaking countries have a common-law system. Most other countries have a civil-law system. Some countries combine features of both systems.

Common-law systemsare based largely on case law - that is, on court decisions.

English common law developed from the rules and principles that judges traditionally followed in deciding court cases. Judges base their decisions on legal precedents - that is, on earlier court rulings in similar cases. The common law is law made by judges.

Civil-law systems are based mainly on statutes (legislative acts). The majority of civil-law countries have assembled their statues into carefully organized collections called codes.

In civil law countries, such as France, Germany, Mexico, etc. the statutes, not the courts, provide the final answer to any question of law. Judges must base every decision on a particular statute and not on precedent alone.

Many countries such as Japan and most Latin-American Nations, have patterned their legal systems after both civil law and common law.




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