1. You are going to read a magazine article about earthquakes. Six paragraphs have been removed from the article. Choose from the paragraphs A - G the one which fits each gap (1-5). There is one extra paragraph which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Earthquake in LA

At 4.31 in the morning on January 17. 1994, the full impact of a massive earthquake measuring 6.7 on the Richter scale hit the community of Northridge in Los Angeles. It was an unwelcome wake-up call for everyone in the city.

One resident, Rosemary Sato, was shaken awake in her bed to the sound of tremors violently rocking her house. When she got up she found that the quake had blown open her front door and thrown her furniture around like toys.

0 .(E)

However, the damage wasn't restricted to Northridge. Across the city the quake killed sixty people, destroyed or severely damaged more than 3,000 homes, and brought down ten highway bridges. Many people were trapped under debris. The cost of the damage was estimated to be 20 billion dollars. The cause of this quake was movement in the San Andreas fault system. The fault is a crack between two giant pieces of the Earth's crust. One of these pieces, most of which is situated under the Pacific Ocean, is moving at an average of about four centimetres every year.

1( )

The good news is that the Californian authorities are taking these predictions seriously. Engineers are working to strengthen the steel frames of buildings and other structures such as bridges. Hopefully, this will lead to less structural damage during the next quake.

2..( )

During a quake it is important to stay calm, as panic leads to rash actions which may result in injury or even death.

3.( )

Levon Jemazian, a clinical psychologist, helps people to deal with the effects of this trauma. For weeks after the Northridge quake, one of his patients, Ani Shakhverdyan, aged eight, would still cling to her parents, was terrified of the dark and would not even go to the bathroom alone.

4..( )

Other survivors of quakes deal with their fears in a different way. They tell themselves that it won't happen again.

5( )

Little does she realise that in California, with the chances of another severe quake at 90 per cent in the next thirty years, she is very likely to experience at least one more.


A In one session, Ani was asked to draw a picture of her fears. She drew a big rat. Then Levon Jemazian told her to cut the picture of the rat into pieces, burn it, and then jump on the remains. Ani did what he suggested and her fears became less intense.


Unfortunately, this movement isn't slow and continuous, but occurs in bursts, which result in earthquakes. And to make matters worse, scientists not only expect more earthquakes in the near future, but also more powerful ones.


People are advised to stay where they are and, if possible, to take shelter under a bed or table. However, for many it is difficult to get rid of the terror of experiencing an earthquake. After the Northridge quake, thousands of Californians even left the state, and many of those who stayed have experienced what is now known as "earthquake trauma".


D One woman's reaction was, "I'm not scared anymore. Also, it's similar to being in a plane crash. What are your chances of being in another?"


E Another resident of the community, who lived in a three-storey apartment block, recalls the top two floors of the building crashing down onto his first-floor apartment. "A wall fell on me," he said, "I couldn't move my head. I was trapped for five hours with injuries to my lungs, ribs and collar-bone."


F Amazingly enough, nobody noticed it apart from scientists who were studying the seismic activity. However, one man did report that his dog had started to howl at the time the quake was said to have started.


G The residents of California are also preparing themselves for the next big one. They are buying emergency supplies, nailing down their belongings and making plans for what they should do in the event of another quake


  1. Critical Reading
  2. Ex.1 Before reading and hearing about derivatives, match up the half-sentences below which define some basic terms
  3. If reading is a habit youd like to get into, there are a number of ways to cultivate it.
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