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Read the following text and fill in the gaps. Use the words given in a box:

automobiles 1960s personal computer individuals operating instructions microprocessors made modern part Central Processing Unit development


A (1) __________ is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of (2) __________ .

A (3) __________ computer (PC) is any general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and original sales price make it useful for (4) ___________ .

A personal computer is (5) __________ of multiple physical components of computer hardware, upon which can be installed an (6) __________ system and a multitude of software to perform the operator's desired functions.

The main (7) __________ of a computer is the (8) __________ (CPU) or the processor.It is the part of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program, and is the primary element carrying out the computer's functions. This term has been in use in the computer industry at least since the early (9) __________. The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed dramatically since the earliest examples, but their fundamental operation remains much the same.

Early CPUs were custom-designed as a part of a larger, sometimes one-of-a-kind, computer. However, this costly method of designing custom CPUs for a particular application has given way to the (10) __________ of mass-produced processors that are made for one or many purposes. This standardization trend generally began in the era of discrete transistor mainframes and minicomputers and has rapidly accelerated with the popularization of the integrated circuit (IC). The IC has allowed increasingly complex CPUs to be designed and manufactured to tolerances on the order of nanometers. Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have increased the presence of these digital devices in (11) __________ life far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machines. Modern (12) __________ appear in everything from (13) __________ to cell phones and children's toys.


Now, answer the questions about the text:

1. What does a “personal computer” mean?

2. Which part of a computer is the most important? Give two terms for it..

3. When did people begin using these terms?

4. What is the main difference between the oldest model of CPU and the modern one?

5. What are the modern uses of microprocessors?


Read the text and match the headings to its parts (A, B, … G):

A microphone A speaker system A printer A keyboard A monitor A webcam A mouse

Read the same text and fill in the gaps. Use the words given in boxes:

include a printer devices a mouse output a monitor

A computer has two types of (1) __________ - the “input” devices and the (2) “__________” devices. Input devices (3) __________ a keyboard, (4) __________ , a microphone, a webcam. Output devices include (5) __________ , a speaker system, (6) __________ system.


Part A - ______________________

actions numbers input characters symbol keys

In computing, this piece of equipment is an (1) “__________” device, partially modeled after the typewriter keyboard, which uses an arrangement of (2) __________ (or buttons) to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches. A keyboard typically has characters (letters, (3) __________ or signs) printed on the keys and each press of a key typically corresponds to a single written (4) __________ . However, to produce some symbols requires pressing and holding several keys simultaneously or in sequence. While most keyboard keys produce letters, numbers or signs – (5) “__________” as they are called, other keys or simultaneous key presses can produce (6) __________ or computer commands.

used commands program system keyboard shuts down

In normal usage, the (7) __________ is used to type texts and numbers into a word processor, text editor or other (8) __________ . In a modern computer, the interpretation of keypresses is generally left to the software. A computer keyboard distinguishes each physical key from every other and reports all keypresses to the controlling software. Keyboards are also (9) __________ for computer gaming, either with regular keyboards or by using keyboards with special gaming features, which can expedite frequently used keystroke combinations. A keyboard is also used to give (10) __________ to the operating (11) __________ of a computer, such as Windows' Control-Alt-Delete combination, which brings up a task window or (12) __________ the machine.

Part B - ______________________

consists device display two-dimensional buttons

In computing, this piece of equipment is a pointing (1) __________ that functions by detecting (2) __________ (2D) motion relative to its supporting surface. Physically, a mouse (3) __________ of an object held under one of the user's hands, with one or more (4) __________ . It sometimes features other elements, such as "wheels", which allow the user to perform various system-dependent operations. The mouse's motion is typically translated into the motion of a cursor on a (5)__________ , which allows fine control of a Graphical User Interface.

1981 models mouse integrated computers

The name mouse, originated at the Stanford Research Institute, derives from the resemblance of early (6) __________ (which had a cord attached to the rear part of the device, suggesting the idea of a tail) to the common mouse.
The first marketed (7) __________ mouse – shipped as a part of a computer and intended for personal computer navigation – came with the Xerox 8010 Star Information System in (8) __________ . A mouse now comes with most (9) __________ and many other varieties can be bought separately. Laptops come with integrated (10)__________ .

Part C - ______________________

television sound voice systems electromagnetic signal microphone

This is (colloquially called a “mic” or “mike”) an acoustic-to-electric sensor that converts (1) __________ into an electrical (2) __________ . In 1876, Emile Berliner invented the first (3) __________ used as a telephone voice transmitter. Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, tape recorders, karaoke (4) __________ , hearing aids, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, FRS radios, megaphones, in radio and (5) __________ broadcasting and in computers for recording (6) __________ , speech recognition, VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic checking or knock sensors.

Most microphones today use (7) __________ induction (dynamic microphone), capacitance change (condenser microphone, pictured right), piezoelectric generation, or light modulation to produce the signal from mechanical vibration.

Part D - _____________________

original network expensive programs videophone include video programs

This is a (1) __________ device connected to a computer or computer (2) __________ , often using a USB port or, if connected to a network, Ethernet or Wi-Fi. The most popular use is for video telephony, permitting a computer to act as a (3) __________ or video conferencing station. This can be used in messenger (4) __________ such as Windows Live Messenger, Skype and Yahoo messenger services. Other popular uses, which (5) __________ the recording of video files or even still-images, are accessible via numerous software (6) __________ , applications and devices. Webcams are known for low manufacturing costs and flexibility, making them the lowest cost form of videotelephony. The term "webcam" may also be used in its (7) __________ sense of a video camera connected to Web continuously for an indefinite time, rather than for a particular session, generally supplying a view for anyone who visits its Web page. Some of these, for example those used as online traffic cameras, are (8) __________ professional video cameras.

Part E -______________________

types display monitors equipment disadvantages images

A monitor or (1) __________ (sometimes called a visual display unit) is a piece of electrical (2) __________ which displays (3) __________ generated by devices such as computers, without producing a permanent record. There are different (4) __________ of monitors – CRT, LCD, Plasma, Penetron. Each type has its own pros and corns (or advantages and (5) __________ ). The display device in modern (6) __________ is typically a thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD), while older monitors use a Cathode Ray Tube (or CRT).


Part F -______________________


plastic produce headphones devices integrated price produces improve connect

Computer speakers, or multimedia speakers, are external (1) __________ of a computer. Computer speakers range widely in quality and in (2) __________ . The computer speakers typically packaged with computer systems are small (3) __________ boxes with mediocre sound quality. Some of the slightly better computer speakers have equalization features such as bass and treble controls, which (4) __________ the sound quality. More sophisticated computer speakers may have a 'subwoofer' unit. Laptops come with (5) __________ speakers. Unfortunately the tight restriction on space in laptops means these speakers (6) __________ low-quality sound. Some users (7) __________ computer sound output to an existing stereo system. This normally (8) __________ much better results than small low-cost computer speakers. Computer speakers can also serve as an economy amplifier for MP3 player use for those who wish not to use (9) __________ although some models of computer speakers have headphone jacks of their own.

cable speakers products port sound components

Simple computer (10) __________ often have a low-power internal amplifier. The standard audio connection is a 3.5mm (1/8 inch) stereo jack plug often colour-coded lime green (following the PC 99 standard) for computer (11) __________ cards. A plug and socket are for a two-wire (signal and ground) (12) __________ that is widely used to connect analog audio and video (13) __________ . Also called a "phono connector," rows of RCA sockets are found on the backs of stereo amplifier and numerous A/V (14)__________ . The prong is 1/8" thick by 5/16" long. A few use an RCA connector for input. There are also USB speakers which are powered from the 5 volts at 200 milliamps provided by the USB (15)__________ , allowing about half a watt of output power.

Part G -______________________

slower digital a copy designed devices printer the cost scanner cable copying

In computing, this piece of equipment is a device which produces (1) __________ (permanent readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. The world's first computer (2) __________ was a 19th century mechanically driven apparatus invented by Charles Babbage for his Difference Engine.

Many printers are primarily used as local peripherals and are attached by a printer (3) __________ or, in modern printers, a USB cable to a computer which serves as a document source.

Some printers, commonly known as network printers, have built-in network interfaces (typically wireless and/or Ethernet), and can serve as a hardcopy device for any user on the network.

Individual printers are often (4) __________ to support both local and network connected users at the same time. In addition, a few modern printers can directly interface to electronic media such as memory sticks or memory cards, or to image capture devices such as (5) __________ cameras, scanners. Some printers are combined with a (6) __________ and/or fax machine in a single unit, and can function as photocopiers. Printers that include non-printing features are sometimes called Multifunction printers (MFP), Multi-Function Devices (MFD), or All-In-One (AIO) printers. Most MFPs include printing, scanning, and (7) __________ among their features.

However, printers are generally slow (8) __________ (30 pages per minute is considered fast). And many inexpensive consumer printers are far (9) __________ than that. And (10) __________ per page is actually relatively high.

Now answer the following questions about the text above:

1. What are input and output devices of a computer?


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Study the following information, try to understand it and remember it. | Part A.

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