Exercise 1. Fill in the correct relative pronoun or adverb.
1. When did you buy the jacket ____ you are wearing?
2. Is that the girl ______ sent you a Valentine’s card?
3. The reason ____ John is successful is that he works very hard.
4. Sam is mending the chair _______ he broke yesterday.
5. This is the town ____ my favourite singer lives.
6. I’ll never forget the time ____ she fell into the swimming pool.
7. Where are the children _______ ball broke our window?
8. What did you do with the money ______ I gave you?
9. Is this the place _______ you lost your grammar textbook?
10. English is a flexible language to learn, ______ was the main reason to choose it.
Exercise 2. Fill in the correct relative pronoun or adverb. Say in which sentences it can be omitted and in which it cannot.
A) The book ____ I borrowed from the library was about a girl______ works in Africa_____ there are many people starving. It’s a very sad story.
B) John is a man ____ ambition is to be rich. That’s the reason _____he works so hard. He doesn’t listen to people _____ tell him to slow down. The day ______ he becomes a millionaire will be the day _____ he has a rest.
C) Home is the place I like best. I’m a person ______ needs time to myself. The thing _____ I most like to do is relax in my living room, ______ I am free from stress and ______there are no interruptions.
D) The moment _____ I met Peter is a moment I’ll always remember. He’s someone _____ I’ll always admire for his courage, _____ has seen him through some difficult times. That’s the reason ______ I liked him straight away and ______ we became good friends ______ understand and respect each other.
Exercise 3. Put in which, what or that.
1 He spoke very fast, ____made it hard to understand him.
2 Thanks, but that's not ____I wanted.
3 I'll tell you something ____will surprise you.
4 I did ____I could.
5 I did everything ____I could.
6 She kept falling over ____made everybody laugh.
7 He's a university professor, ____is hard to believe.
8 You can have anything ____you want.
9 Her sense of humour - that's ___attracts people to her.
10 He said nothing ____made sense.
Exercise 4. Join each item from column A to the corresponding one from column B using which.
Example: 1-g I knew you would be hungry whichis why I bought some sandwiches.
1. It’s very cold today. a) This was very kind of him.
2. They got stuck in a traffic jam. b) That’s why the river burst its banks.
3. He gave me a present. c) That’s how I knew about the party.
4. I forgot to go to the bank. d) This made them late for work.
5. It rained a lot yesterday. e) It meant I couldn’t go shopping.
6. She sent me an invitation. f) That’s why I’m wearing a jumper.
Exercise 5. a) Say which type of relative clause each of the following pairs of sentences contains and what the difference in meaning is:
1. A) I took my jacket to the dry cleaner's, which had a two hour service; B) I took my jacket to the dry cleaner's which had a two hour service.
2. A) Commuters who had heard about the derailment arranged alternative transport home; B) Commuters, who had heard about the derailment, arranged alternative transport home.
3. A) The cars, whose owners had double-parked, were towed away by the police; B) The cars whose owners had double-parked were towed away by the police.
b) Punctuate the following sentences according to whether they contain defining (identifying) or non-defining (non-identifying) clauses. Sometimes the same clause can be both types, but with a different meaning.
1. My wife who works as a journalist is an excellent cook.
2. My daughter who works in New York is getting married soon.
3. The engagement which was announced last week came as a bit of a shock.
4. The man she’s getting married to is an artist.
5. It doesn’t seem to me that artists are the kind of people who can be relied on to provide an income.
6. Artists who are unproductive are not much use to anyone.
7. My daughter has been married once before which means she should know what she’s doing.
8. Her previous marriage which ended in divorce was to a Spaniard.
9. Her parents-in-law who were always exceptionally kind were very upset when the marriage broke down.
10. The children who spoke Spanish went to live with their father after the divorce.
Exercise 6. Fill in the relative pronoun or adverb. Put commas where necessary. Say whether the relative clauses are identifying or non-identifying and whether the relative can be omitted or not.
1. Paul _____ birthday is on Friday is having a party tonight.
2. My office _______ is very big is on the first floor.
3. Martin ______ works in the library writes poetry in his spare time.
4. That’s the woman _____ house was burgled last week.
5. The day _____I left school was hot and sunny.
6. Sarah Jones ______ I knew at university is a doctor now.
7. The CD ______ I bought yesterday was awful.
8. Tina _______ lives next door is a wonderful cook.
9. People ______ play musical instrument are called musicians.
10. This is the reason _______ I haven’t finished.
11. My friend Peter ______ has just moved to Wales sent me a long letter.
12. My boss _______ office is next to mine is on holiday at the moment.
13. My favourite time of the year is summer ________ I can have a holiday.
14. The woman _______ won the lottery gave an interview to the newspaper.
Exercise 7. a) Combine the sentences to make one new sentence, including a defining relative clause. Make any necessary changes, and omit the relative pronoun if possible.
1 The bus goes up Edward Avenue. It doesn't stop at the railway station.
2 The debate went on all night. The backbenchers had demanded it.
3 The escaped convicts stashed away the gold bars. They had stolen the gold in an earlier bank raid.
4 It was her dream cottage! She had always wanted one like that.
5 They booked into the hotel. They had stayed there on their honeymoon.
6 The bodyguards were flanking the King. They had revolvers concealed inside their jackets.
7 It wasn't their dog. No, I was taking care of their cat.
8 The tree had died. They cut it down.
9 That's the cruise. I've always wanted to go on that one. 10 I think it was the manager. I was speaking to him.
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