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Graphical stylistic means.

Basic notions of graphic expressive means are punctuation, orthography or spelling, text segmentation, and type. Punctuation is used in writing to show the stress, rhythm and tone of the spoken word. It also aims at clarifying the meaning of sentences. There are such common marks of punctuation: the full stop [.], the comma [, ], the colon [: ], the semicolon [; ], brackets [()], dash [ - ], hyphen [ - ], the exclamation mark [! ], the oblique stroke [/ ],. the interrogative (question) mark [ ? ], inverted commas (quotation marks) [""], suspension marks [...], the apostrophe [ ' ]. The full stop signals the end of a declarative sentence. It may be used as an instrument for dividing a text or a sentence into very small segments to underline the dynamic character of events or to create a stylistic device of parceling. The comma is used to show a slight pause in a sentence. It helps to clarify the sense of statements and to prevent ambiguity. Bracketsare used to insert a word or a phrase into a sentence (Most of the suspects (seven in all) were questioned by the police). The words inserted between brackets are usually an explanation or an illustration.

Square brackets are used to indicate that smth is being added by the author. The reporter added that the woman [Mrs Wood] had suffered severe injuries. The dash is used to indicate a sudden change of thought, an additional comment, or a dramatic qualification: That was the end of the matter - or so we thought. Dashes can also be used to insert a comment or a list of things. The exclamation mark indicates surprise, gladness, irritation, despair, indignation, anger, alarm and other feelings and emotions. The interrogative mark is used to show that a question has been raised. The hyphen is a short dash which connects words or parts of words. The oblique strokeis used to separate items in a list: oil/water mix, italic/Roman type.Suspension marksare typically used to signify emotional pauses of the speaker. They reflect such inner states of people as uncertainty, confusion or nervousness. They are also create a stylistic device of aposiopesis.

The colon is used to introduce a strong pause within a sentence. It may anticipate a list of things. The semicolon is half way between a comma and a colon. It marks a pause which is longer than a comma, but not as long as a colon. Semicolons are used between clauses which could stand alone, but which are closely related and have some logical connection. The apostrophe is a raised comma. It is used to show possession (my mother's house, anybody's guess) and to punctuate contractions {There's nobody here. Where's Freddy? Don't fence me in). Capital letters are stylistically used to show the importance of particular words.


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