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Analytical and synthetic forms of the verb.

morphemic composition of the word, while analytical grammatical forms are built up by a combination of at least two words, one of which is a grammatical auxiliary (word-morpheme), and the other, a word of "substantial" meaning. Synthetical grammatical forms are based on inner inflexion, outer inflexion, and suppletivity; hence, the forms are referred to as inner-inflexional, outer-inflexional, and suppletive.

Inner inflexion, or phonemic (vowel) interchange, is not productive in modern Indo-European languages, but it is peculiarly employed in some of their basic, most ancient lexemic elements. By this feature, the whole family of Indo-European languages is identified in linguistics as typologically "inflexional".

Inner inflexion (grammatical "infixation", see above) is used in English in irregular verbs (the bulk of them belong to the Germanic strong verbs) for the formation of the past indefinite and past participle; besides, it is used in a few nouns for the formation of the plural. Since the corresponding oppositions of forms are based on phonemic interchange, the initial paradigmatic form of each lexeme should also be considered as inflexional. Cf.: take — took — taken, drive — drove — driven, keep — kept — kept, etc.; man — men, brother — brethren, etc.

The traditional view of the analytical morphological form recognises two lexemic parts in it, stating that it presents a combination of an auxiliary word with a basic word. However, there is a tendency with some linguists to recognise as analytical not all such grammatically significant combinations, but only those of them that are "grammatically idiomatic", i.e. whose relevant grammatical meaning is not immediately dependent on the meanings of their component elements taken apart. Considered in this light, the form of the verbal perfect where the auxiliary "have" has utterly lost its original meaning of possession, is interpreted as the most standard and indisputable analytical form 'in English morphology. Its opposite is seen in the analytical degrees of comparison which, according to the cited interpretation, come very near to free combinations of words by their lack of "idiomatism" in the above sense [Смирницкий, (2), 68 и сл.; Бархударов, (2), 67 и сл.].*

37. Syntagmatic classification of verbs.External syntagmatic properties are often defined in terms of frames, and various kinds of frame will be found in the linguistic literature: subcategorisation frames, selectional frames, case frames, role frames, ...A frame is essentially a template or pattern which is filled in by specific characteristics of the word concerned; the different kinds of frame relate to different kinds of specific characteristics of the word, especially syntactic and semantic properties. There are two ways of expressing frame information: structural and functional.The main kinds of structural frame are, in order of decreasing generality:Subcategorisation frame:The syntactic part of speech (POS)configuration of the phrase in which a verb occurs. For example:All English verbs require a subject, and in simple sentences with no special word order conditions the frame would specify [ NP ], where the specifies the position of the verb, so that the whole structure would be [ NP V ].However, this only specifies intransitive verbs, i.e. verbs with no object. The specification of a transitive verb is [ NP NP ].Selectional frame:There are semantic restrictions (which may not be as apparent in joking or metaphorical contexts) between verbs and the nouns with which they typically occur. For example:Some verbs, like `eat', typically occur with `animatesubjects'. This verb also typically occurs with `organic objects'. One traditional way (though not uncontroversial) was of expressing the selectional frame for `eat' is [ +animate +organic ].Collocational frame:Sometimes the semantic restrictions are much stricter, requiring a specific word or a small set of words in the frame. An example of a collocational frame for `moo' would include `cow' as the typical subject, e.g. [ [ NP cow ] ... ].Idiom frame:Even more strict are idiom frames, in which several words figure in the frame. For example: [ [(NP ) can't make head or tail of (NP ) ] ].

Logically, verbs are generally treated as predicates which take a certain number of arguments. We will return to this topic in a later session.The main traditional kinds of functional frame, which will not be commented on further here, come from different theoretical directions:Argument structure,S V O (etc.),case frame,theta role frame. Although the concept of frame is usually applied to verbs, it can - perhaps surprisingly - be applied to all other parts of speech, too.

38. The adjective as part of speech.An adjective is often defined as a word which describes or gives more information about a noun or pronoun. Adjectives describe nouns in terms of such qualities as size, color, number, and kind. In the sentence The lazy dog sat on the rug, the word lazy is an adjective which gives more information about the noun dog. Usually an adjective comes before the noun that it describes, as in tall man. It can also come after a form of the word beas in The man is tall. More than one adjective can be used in this position in the sentence The man is tall, dark and handsome. In later lessons, you will learn how to make comparisons with adjectives.Most adjectivesdo not change form whether the noun it describes is singular or plural. For example we say big tree and big trees, old house and old houses, good time and good times. There are, however, some adjectives that do have different singular andplural forms. The common words this and that have the plural forms these and those. These words are called demonstrative adjectivesbecause demonstrate or point out what is being referred to.Another common type of adjective is the possessive adjective which shows possession or ownership. The words my dog or my dogs indicate that the dog or dogs belong to me. I would use the plural form our if the dog or dogs belonged to me and other people. These modify a noun and tell us what it is like, but not necessarily how it appears to the senses. Here 'descriptive' is used in the widest sense of the word. The following descriptive adjectives describe the noun:The flowery dress. The long train. The hairy pig. The smelly dog. They tell us what the noun, or thing, looks like, sounds like, tastes like, feels like or smells like.
These adjectives might look a bit like adverbs!The moor is lonely. It feels tacky. The bush is prickly.Proper AdjectivesThese are derived from proper names. For instance:John's car
Australian EnglishFord car.Possessive Adjectives Theseshowownership:my car, your cat, our house, their ideas In traditional grammar, these are considered adjectives; nowadays, they are usually considered pronouns or determiners. They define the nouns, but do not describe them (Or describe them in the widest sense of describe, whatever that means). Because they do this, we can think of them as adjectives. Also they stand for a noun. The word my stands for mine (of me). So my is also a pronoun. Numerical adjectiveThe ordinal numbers: first, second, third, etc., are usually adjectives:The first one. The second train. The third man.Also, the adjectives of quality: few, many, several are adjectives. Demonstrative adjectiveThese point something out:this book that pencil, these boxes, those cats,Like possessive adjectives, nowadays, these are considered pronouns. In traditional grammar, they are demonstrative adjectives. But when used like this:He gave me this. That is the pencil he gave me. These are her cats. current grammar, like traditional grammar, calls them pronouns. Relative Adjective.Having faith is what matters most. This is the dog whose collar we found. Interrogative and Exclamatory AdjectivesThe following are examples of interrogative adjectives:Which bottle contains the medicine? What shape is the new building? And these are exclamatory adjectives:

39.An adjective is often defined as a word which describes or gives more information about a noun or pronoun. Adjectives describe nouns in terms of such qualities as size, color, number, and kind. In the sentence Most descriptive adjectives can show degree of quality or quantity by forming two degrees of comparison: the comparative degree and the superlative degree. These degrees are formed from the positive degree, which is the usual form of adjectives. The comparative and superlative forms can be simple (bigger, biggest) or compound (more attentive, most attentive). The comparative degree and the superlative degree are formed by adding the suffixes ER and EST to the positive form of the adjective or by using MORE and MOST before the positive form of the adjective. The choice of ER, EST or MORE, MOST depends mostly on the number of syllables in the adjective. Positive degree: bright; important. Comparative degree: brighter; more important. Superlative degree: brightest; most important. n adjective in the comparative or superlative form can stand before the noun that it defines or after the verb BE in the predicative. For example: Try an easier exercise. This exercise is easier. As a rule, the definite article is required before the superlative form of the adjective: the nearest hospital; the largest room. One-syllable adjectives form the comparative and superlative degrees by adding the suffixes ER, EST: black, blacker, blackest; cheap, cheaper, cheapest; clear, clearer, clearest; cold, colder, coldest; Anna is tall. Ella is taller than her sister. Maria is the tallest girl in her class. Most two-syllable adjectives, including adjectives ending in the suffixes "al, ant, ent, ish, ive, ic, ous, ful, less", form the comparative and superlative degrees with the help of MORE, MOST: active, more active, most active; careless, more careless, most careless; distant, more distant, most distant; eager, more eager, most eager; famous, more famous, most famous; A more distant object seems to be smaller than a closer object. Adjectives are words that describe nouns, like colors, shapes, sizes, and appearances.In English, there is a single form for each adjective. Unlike in some languages, English adjectives do not have different forms according to gender, number, or location in the sentence.English adjectives always come in front of the nouns they modify.In the following examples, the adjectives are in italics.

I bought a red car.
I need three new books.
The young girl saw a cute puppy.
What a good idea!


40. Analytical and syntactical forms of adjectives

Three forms constitute this category: the positive degree, the comparative degree, and the superlative degree forms of the adjective. The basic form, known as the positive degree, has no special formal mark, e.g.: tall, beautiful; the comparative degree is marked by two kinds of forms; synthetical forms with the suffix “-er” and analytical forms with the auxiliary wordmore, e.g.: taller, more beautiful; the superlative degree is also formed either synthetically with the help of the grammatical suffix “-est”, or analytically with the help of the auxiliary word most, e.g.: tallest, most beautiful. The synthetic and analytical degrees stand in complementary distribution to each other, their choice is determined by syllabo-phonetic forms of adjectives and is covered in detail in practical grammar textbooks. Also, there are suppletive forms of the degrees of comparison, e.g.: bad – worse – worst.

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