The typological status of the English language. The criterion of word-structure.
It was Wilhelm von Humboldt who conceived the idea of linguistic typology. The criterion of word structure proposed at the beginning of the 19thc.is considered to be the most reliable criterion of the structural typology, with reference to this criterion the world languages fall into several types:
Inflectional languages (Russian,Latin,Old English)
1) Words in such languages consist of stems and inflexions. Stems in their turn can consist of roots and word-building affixes(prefixes, suffixes, or both)
2)words are often polysyllabic(have more than 2 syllables)
3)Inflexions are polysemantic (each can express several gram.meaning)
4)Words are autosemantic (they differ from one another semantically and syntactically)
5)Each part of speech has its own word-building affixes
6)Word order is 'free'.
7)There are complex sentences with different kinds of subordinate clauses.
8)Words should agree their forms to make up a sentence.
Agglutinative Languages (Turkish)
Comes from the Latin verb «agglutinare» -to stick
1) Words are composed of unchangeable (stable) roots and several affixes (called stickers). Each affix is easily joined to the root and can be removed if necessary.
Oda- the room, odada-in the rooms(the locative case forms), odalar- rooms (Plural), odalarda in the rooms (the locative plurals)
3)Each affix is associated with one grammatical meaning, so that polysemy is impossible.
4)Any affix can be added to any root, so that words cannot be classified into parts of speech as lexico-morphological classes.
5)Both grammatical and lexical meanings are marked with affixes.
6)Word-building and word-changing affixes are not clearly distinguished.
7)There is a great number of non-finite forms and various predicative constructions associated with them.
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