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F) CONVERSION

E) PHRASAL VERBS

D) REDUPLICATION

In reduplication compounds are made by doubling a stem (often a pseudo-morpheme). Reduplicative compounds fall into three main subgroups:

1) Reduplicative compounds properwhose immediate constituents are identical in their form, e.g.: murmur, bye-bye, blah-blah, pooh-pooh, goody-goody, etc.

2) Ablaut (gradational) compoundswhose immediate constituents have different root-vowels, e.g.: riff-raff, dilly-dally, ping-pong, chit-chat, sing-song, etc.

3) Rhyme compoundswhose immediate constituents are joined to rhyme, e.g.: willy-nilly, helter-skelter, hoity-toity, namby-pamby, walkie-talkie, etc.

This type of word-building is greatly facilitated in Modern English by the vast number of monosyllables. Stylistically speaking, most words made by reduplication represent informal groups: colloquialisms and slang. E. g. walkie-talkie ("a portable radio"), riff-raff ("the worthless or disreputable element of society"; "the dregs of society"), chi-chi (si. for chic as in a chi-chi girl).

Phrasal verbs are combinations of a verb and adverb or a verb and preposition (or verb with both adverb and preposition).

Phrasal verbs may be either non-idiomatic or idiomatic. Non-idiomatic phrasal verbs retain their primary local meaning, e.g. come in, come out, come out of, take off, put down, etc. They may also have a kind of perfective colouring, e.g. add up, eat up, drink up, swallow up, rise up, etc.

In idiomatic compounds meanings cannot be derived from their immediate constituents: bring up - , bear out - , give in - , fall on - , take in -a.

In modern English fiction one can often come across verbs, which denote an action and at the same time modify it in occasional colligations with prepositions or adverbs.

Conversion is a special type of affixless derivation where a newly-formedword acquires a paradigm and syntactic functions different from those of the original word. As a matter of fact, all parts of speech can be drawn into the word-building process of conversion to a certain extent. Its derivational patterns are varied, the most widespread among them being N > V, V > N, A > V.

Conversion consists in making a new word from some existing word by changing the category of a part of speech, the morphemic shape of the original word remaining unchanged. The new word has a meaning, which differs from that of the original one though it can more or less be easily associated with it. It has also a new paradigm peculiar to its new category as a part of speech: to nurse, v, nurse, n. substantive paradigm

Conversion is not only a highly productive but also a particularly English way of word-building. Its immense productivity is considerably encouraged by certain features of the English language in its modern stage of development. The analytical structure of Modern English greatly facilitates processes of making words of one category of parts of speech from words of another.

Conversion is a convenient and "easy" way of enriching the vocabulary with new words. The high productivity of conversion finds its reflection in speech where numerous occasional cases of conversion can be found, which are not registered by dictionaries and which occur momentarily, through the immediate need of the situation. "If anybody oranges me again tonight, I'll knock his face off, says the annoyed hero of a story by O'Henry when a shop-assistant offers him oranges (for the tenth time in one night) instead of peaches for which he is looking ("Little Speck in Garnered Fruit"). One is not likely to find the verb to orange in any dictionary, but in this situation it answers the need for brevity, expressiveness and humor. Such example shows that conversion is a vital and developing process that penetrates contemporary speech.

One should guard against thinking that every case of noun and verb (verb and adjective, adjective and noun, etc.) with the same morphemic shape results from conversion. There are numerous pairs of words (e. g. love, n. to love, v.; work, n. to work, v.; drink, n. to drink, v., etc.) which did not occur due to conversion but coincided as a result of certain historical processes (dropping of endings, simplification of stems) when before that they had different forms (e. g. 0. E. lufu, n. lufian, v.).

The two categories of parts of speech especially affected by conversion are nouns and verbs. Verbs made from nouns are the most numerous amongst the words produced by conversion: e. g. to hand, to back, to face, to eye, to mouth, to nose, to dog, to wolf, to monkey, to can, to coal, to stage, to screen, to room, to floor, to blackmail, to blacklist, to honeymoon, and very many others.

Nouns are frequently made from verbs: do (e. g. This is the queerest do I've ever come across. Do event, incident), go (e. g. He has still plenty of go at his age. Go energy), make, run, find, catch, cut, walk, worry, show, move, etc.

Verbs can also be made from adjectives: to pale, to yellow, to cool, to grey, to rough (e. g. We decided to rough it in the tents as the weather was warm), etc.

Other parts of speech are not entirely unsusceptible to conversion as the following examples show: to down, to out (as in a newspaper heading Diplomatist outed from Budapest), the ups and downs, the ins and outs, like, n. (as in the like of me and the like of you).




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