Linguistic and extralinguistic aspects.

Pragmatic adaptation.

The communicants involved in interlingual communication not only speak different languages but also have different general knowledge, social and historical background and belong to different cultures. This fact has a considerable impact on the translators strategy since the most faithful rendering of ST content may sometimes be partially or fully misunderstood by the recipients or fail to produce a similar effect. The translator has to assess the possible communicative effect of the TT. In this case the translator makes pragmatic adaptation of the text to the knowledge, critical abilities and emotional characteristics of the T recipients. This may necessitate modifying and expanding of the original message to make it more understandable to the members of different language-communities. The translator may add some words, explicate some notions or make adequate substitutions to provide appropriate feedback.

A great role is played by difference in customs and living conditions. It stands to reason that the natives of a tropical island can hardly be impressed by the statement that something is as white as snow. Thus, the translator should involve a kind of pragmatic adaptation to preserve the original communicative effect.

Translation is a complicated phenomenon involving linguistic, psychological, cultural, literary and other factors. The most of the research of up-to-date translation has been made within linguistics. The linguistic theory is concerned with translation as a form of speech communication establishing contact between communicants who speak different languages. The basis of this theory is macro linguistics with all new branches such as sociolinguistics, text linguistics and communicative linguistics.

Basically, replacement of ST by TT of the same communicative value is possible because both texts are in human speech governed by the same rules and implying the same relationships between language, reality and human mind.

Communication is made possible through a logical interpretation by the users of the speech units, general knowledge, previous experience, various associations.

Extralinguistic factors also include the conditions of translators work, the recipient for whom is the translation made the temporal and space characteristics of the original.


When confronted with the text to be translated, the translators first concern is to understand it by assessing the meaning of language units in the text against the contextual situation and the extralinguistic facts. There are two types of context: linguistic and situational.

The linguistic context is made up by the other SL units. It can be microcontext involving a phrase, macrocontext - sentence or passage, megacontext a chapter or the whole text.

The situational context includes the temporal, special and other circumstance under which ST was produced as well as all facts which the receptor is expected to know so that he could adequately interpret the message.

It is, only by assessing the meaning of SL units in ST against the linguistic and situational context that the translator can discover what they mean in the particular case and what equivalents should be chosen as their substitutes. Thus, in the following sentences the linguistic context will enable the translator to make a correct choice among the equivalents to the noun attitude:

I dont like your attitude to work.

The photographer caught him in the attitude of prayer.

As often as not the correct substitute cannot be chosen unless the situational context is brought into play. If somebody is referred to in ST as an abolitionist the choice of the substitute will depend on the period described. In different historical periods abolitionists were people who sought the abolition of slavery, prohibition laws or death penalty. Accordingly, in the translation the person will be described as , , .


Lecture 2

A short historical outline of European and Ukrainian translation.


1. The earliest mentions of translation, the translation development during ancient times until 500 AD.

2. Translation and interpretation during the Middle Ages.

3. Translation during the Renaissance period

4. Translation during the period of classicism and Enlightenment.

5. The epoch of Romanticism and establishment of the principles of faithful translation in Europe.

6. Translation in Kyivan Rus during the 10th-13th centuries and in Ukraine during the 14th-16th centuries.

7. The Kyiv Mohyla Academy and revival of translation activities in Ukraine.

8. Translation during the years of Ukrainian independence and early Soviet rule, post-war period, during the last decade of the 20-th century.

9. Translation at the beginning of the 21-st century, the role of the Vsesvit Journal.


List of literature used and recommended.

1. .. . .: , 2001.- 446 .

2. (). .: , 1997.

3. .. , .. . .: , 1989, 1991.

4. . . .: , 1995.

5. McDowell Josh and Stewart. The Bible. Heres Life Publishers INC, San Bernadino, California, 1983.

6. Draper J. W. Theory of translation in the 18-th century.


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