Still life

Negative space









Line quality


Elements of art



Ex. 2. :

Just as the poet arranges nouns, verbs, and adjectives into ideas, the artist arranges shapes, lines, and colors into images about our world. Each artists work is as personal and individual as the artist. You, too, are an artist, and the drawings and paintings you will be doing in this class will be as individual as you are. In this book, you will learn how to look at art and the world around you with the eyes of an artist.

After completing this chapter, you will be able to:

● Name and describe the elements of art.

● Describe the different types of line.

● Identify the properties of color.

● Experiment with various elements of art to understand their role in making art.

Ex. 3. :


The Language of Art

Have you ever heard a person described as wearing many hats? Saying a person wears many hats means he or she is good at a number of things. An artista person who uses imagination and skill to communicate ideas in visual formwears many hats. Among the hats artists wear is one labeled scientist. Wearing this hat, artists experiment with the effects of light on objects. Wearing the mathematicians hat, they carefully measure distances between objects. Wearing the hat of writer, they tell stories and record events. In this book, you will learn about the different ways in which artists have used these skills over the centuries. You will also meet specific artists and learn about their creations.


Like other professionals, artists speak a language all their own. Just as the mathematician uses numbers, so the artist uses line. Much in the way musicians communicatethrough notes and sounds, artists speak in color, value, and shape. The writer relies onwords, sentences, and paragraphs; the artiston form, space, and texture.

These seven termsline, color, value, shape, form, space, and texturemake up the artists vocabulary. The terms are grouped together under the heading elements of art. These are the basic visual symbols an artist uses to create works of art. An artists success depends on how well he or she uses these elements.

Using the Artists Vocabulary

When you look at an artwork, it is not always clear where one element ends and another begins. Study the artworks in Figures 61and 62.You do not see the elements of form and color in the first or the element of line in the second. Instead, you see the works as a whole. As you examine each work, your eye reads all the elements together. In fact, it is the careful blending of elements that allows you to see an artwork as the artist meant it to be seen. Taken together, the elements in Figure 61 add up to a basket of apples and a bottle. The lines in Figure 62 cleverly suggest a familiar farm animal. Can you identify it?


Figure 61Paul Cézanne. The Basket of Apples. c. 1895. Oil on canvas.65.4 cm _ 81.3 cm (253⁄4 _ 32_).

The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Helen Birch Bartlett Memorial Collection.


Figure 62 Alexander Calder. Sow. 1928. Wire. 43.2 _ 76.2 _ 19.5 cm (17 _ 30 _ 72⁄3 _). The Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York. Gift of the artist. 1997 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/ADAGP, Paris.

Reading the Artists Vocabulary

Think back to when you first learned toread. You did not start with a book. Rather,

you began by reading a word at a time. This is how you will learn the vocabulary of art. You will learn about the elements of art one at a time.

Each of the remaining lessons in this chapter treats one or more elements. In later chapters, you will learn about other terms that are central to the practice and study of art.

Ex. 4. :

1. Does the artist use a single color to show an object?

2. Do the objects look real?

3. What does this artwork say to you?

4. What are some of the questions you think the artist asked himself while he was creating this work?( Figure 62)



Ex. 1. .

Ex. 5. :

Paul Cézanne (18391906)

Cultural connection.Although he is sometimes associated with the French Impressionist painters, Paul Cézanne was a leader in the movement toward abstraction in painting that became known as Post- Impressionism. Born in Aix-en-Provence, France, in 1839, Cézanne exhibited a few times with Claude Monet, Auguste Renoir, and Camille Pissarro. It soon became apparent, however, that Cézannes style and vision were clearly unique.

While the Impressionists were concerned with the effects of light on objects, Cézanne was more interested in showing the basic form and structure of objects. He once said, Everything in nature is modeled after the sphere, the cone, and the cylinder. One must learn to paint from these simple figures.

Look at Figure 61.How did Cézanne use these simple figures in his still life?


1.Define artist.

2.Name the seven elements of art.



  1. Tactile Texture
  2. Tactile Texture
  3. Texture
  4. Visual Texture

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