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Henri Matisse- Биография художника на английском.

Claude Monet- Биография художника на английском.


Claude Monet (November 14, 1840 - December 5, 1926), French impressionist painter. Monet was born in Paris, France. His family moved to Le Havre in Normandy when he was six. His father wanted him to go into the family grocery store business, but Oscar Monet wanted to paint. Eugene Boudin, an artist who worked extensively on plein air paintings - quick sketches made in open air - at beaches in Normandy, taught him some painting techniques in 1856. Monet had to serve in the army in Algeria. His aunt Lecadre agreed to get him out of the army if he took an art course at a university. He left the army, but he did not like the traditional painting styles the university taught.

In 1862 he studied art with Charles Gleyre in Paris, where he met Pierre-Auguste Renoir with whom he founded the Impressionist movement. They painted together and maintained a lifelong friendship.

Monet could also use the studio and paint its models for a low cost. He painted Camille Doncieux, and later they were married. He painted Women in the Garden in the late 1860s. They moved to a house in Argenteuil, near the Seine River, after he and his wife had their first child. They lived there for six years until Camille died; he painted her on her death-bed. Monet then moved to a house in Giverny, Eure, in the Haute-Normandie Region where he planted a large garden.

In 1872 (or 1873) Monet painted Impression, soleil levant (French: Impression, sunrise - now in the Musee Marmottan, Paris), a landscape of Le Havre, which was hung in the first Impressionist exhibition in 1874. It is said that a hostile critic Louis Leroy used the name "Impressionists" from the title of this picture by commenting that their paints were indeed "impressions" rather than finished works of art. By the third exhibition in 1876 the painters we know as the Impressionists were using the term about themselves.

He married Alice Hoschede in 1892, whom he had an affair with while he was married to Camille.

In the 1880s and 1890s Monet painted a series of paintings of the Rouen Cathedral from different points of view and at different times of the day. Twenty views of the cathedral were exhibited at the Durand-Ruel gallery in 1895. He also made series-paintings of haystacks.

Monet was exceptionally fond of painting controlled nature - his own garden, his water lilies, his pond, and his bridge. His garden had a meadow with willows and a marsh. He also painted up and down the banks of the Seine. In 1914 Monet began a major new large series of the water lily scenes at the suggestion of his friend, the politician Georges Clemenceau.

He is interred in the Giverny Church Cemetery, Giverny, Eure, in the Haute-Normandie, Region of France.

Recent sales of a Monet painting exceeded US$22 million.

Henri Matisse (December 31, 1869 - November 3, 1954) was a French artist. He was born Henri-Emile-Benoit Matisse in Le Cateau, Picardie, France, and grew up in Bohain-en-Vermandois. In 1887 he went to Paris to study law. After gaining his qualification he worked as a court administrator in Cateau Cambresis. Following an attack of appendicitis he took up painting during his convalescence. After his recovery, he returned to Paris in 1891 to study art at the Academie Julian and became a student of Odilon Redon and Gustave Moreau. Influenced by the works of Edouard Manet, Paul Signac and Paul Cezanne, and also by traditional Japanese art, he painted in the Fauvist manner, becoming known as a leader of that movement. His first exhibition was in 1901 and his first solo exhibition in 1904.

His fondess for bright and expressive colour became more pronounced after he moved southwards in 1905 to work with Andre Derain and spent time on the French Riviera, his paintings marked by having the colours keyed up into a blaze of intense shades and characterized by flat shapes and controlled lines, with expression dominant over detail. The decline of the Fauvist movement after 1906 did nothing to affect the rise of Matisse; he had moved beyond them and many of his finest works were created between 1906 and 1917 when he was an active part of the great gathering of artistic talent in Montparnasse.

In 1941 he was diagnosed with cancer and, following surgery, he soon needed a wheelchair; this did not stop his work however, but as increased weakness made an easel impossible he created cut paper collages called papiers decoupes, often of some size, which still demonstrated his eye for colour and geometry.

Matisse lived in Cimiez on the French Riviera, now a suburb of the city of Nice, from 1917 until his death in 1954. He is buried there in the Cimiez Monastery Cemetery.

Working in a number of modes, but principally as a painter, he is considered one of the most significant artists of the early 20th century. Unlike many artists, he achieved international fame and popularity during his own lifetime. From his early shows in Paris, he attracted collectors and critics.

Today, a Matisse painting can sell for as much as US$17 million. In 2002, a Matisse sculpture, "Reclining Nude I (Dawn)," sold for US$9.2 million, a record for a sculpture by the artist.

Partial list of works

Notre-Dame, une fin d'apres-midi (1902),
Green Stripe (1905),
The Open Window (1905),
Le bonheur de vivre (1906),
Madras Rouge (1907),
The Dessert: Harmony in Red (1908),
The Conversation (1909),
Dance (1910),
L'Atelier Rose (1911),
Zorah on the Terrace (1912),
Le Rifain assis (1912),
La lecon de musique (1917),
The Painter and His Model (1917),
Interior At Nice (1920),
Odalisque with Raised Arms (1923),
Yellow Odalisque (1926),
Robe violette et Anemones (1937),
Le Reve de 1940 (1940),
Deux fillettes, fond jaune et rouge (1947),
Jazz (1947),
Chapelle du Saint-Marie du Rosaire (1948, completed in 1951),
Beasts of the Sea (1950),
L'Escargot (1953).

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