Lesson 7

Exercise 1 Cange the sentences as in the model


The captain says that his ship's speed is 17 knots.

The captain said that his ship's speed was 17 knots.

1. I know that your ship took part in the Antarctic expedition.

2. He thinks that he will sail on a training ship.

3. The passenger says that he can speak English quite well.

4. They say that their ship carries cargo and passengers.

5. The captain wants to know who asked for him.

6. The engineer says that the engine is in good order.

7. My friend says that he has little time for reading detective stories.

8. I think that they had their practice in July.

9. We know that he must be on board at 9 o'clock.

10. We don't think that the wind will blow from the North.



Exercise 2 Change the following into indirect speech



"I want to sit in the armchair", said the boy.

The boy said that he wanted to sit in the armchair.

1. The secretary said to me: "The delegation arrived in London yesterday".

2. "Open the window, please", she said to me.

3. He said: ''I shall light a fire and make myself breakfast".

4. "Don't run to the door when you hear the bell", said the woman to her little daughter.

5. She asked me: ''How long are you going to stay here?"

6. Mary asked me: "Will you spend your vacation in Moscow?"

7. "Lock the door when you leave the house", said my elder sister to me.

8. "Have you received a telegram from your wife?'' she asked Robert.

9. Mabel said: ''Nothing will change my decision and I shall leave for Cap Foron tonight".

10. "Please, don't smoke in the room", said the old woman to her nephew.

11. "I am shivering with cold", said the girl.



, . ,


Art in Ukraine (Painting)


Artistic traditions of Ukraine have a very ancient history. The oldest surviving paintings are frescoes and murals found on the northern Black sea coast, where they were preserved on the walls of tombs fragments of frescoes from the medieval Rus period have been found in the Cathedral of Transfiguration in Chernihiv (11th century) and the St. Sophia Cathedral in Kyiv (early 11the century). Portable icons were already being painted in the 10th and 11th centuries, but none so old have

survived to our time.


In the 15th and 16th centuries there appeared a Galician school of icon painting. During the Renaissance icons gradually lest their rigidity and became more realistic. In Ukraine portrait painting as a separate genre emerged during the Renaissance (16th century) and was strongly influenced by the icon tradition.


Many Ukrainian painters were attracted to the newly established Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg (1757). The emigration of the Ukrainian artists to St. Petersburg deprived Ukrainian painting of its most creative talents. The exception was T.Shevchenko, who devoted most of his painting (like his writing) to Ukrainian interests.


In the last few decades of the 19th century Ukrainian painters studying art in Russia were influenced by the Peredvizhniki society, formed in 1870 is St.Petersburg. Artists of Ukrainian origin who became active in the society were I.Repin, I.Kramskoi, A.Kuindzhi, R.Kuznetsov, K.Kostandi and many others.


During the brief period of Ukrainian independence the Ukrainian State Academy of Arts (1917-22) was established in Kyiv. In 1920s in Soviet Ukraine a variety of styles flourished. Cubo-futurist painting were produced by V.Yermilov in Kharkiv and O.Romazov, V.Pavlov and A.Petrystsky in Kyiv. In the 1930s all avant-garde activities in Soviet Ukraine came to a halt with the introduction of socialist realism as the only literary and artistic method permitted by the communist regime.


Changes brought about in the second half of 1980-s resulted in greater creative freedom and a proliferation of styles and manners of depiction. Many painters showed great inventiveness, including H.Romanyshyn from Lviv, R.Popov from Kharkiv, O.Tkachenko from Dnipropetrovsk and R.Tetianych, V.Budnykov, H.Heiko and O.Babak from Kyiv. After decades of restraint and isolation artists in Ukraine are now free to continue the development of various artistic traditions.


  1. Lesson 1 Basic Concept of Security and Defense
  2. Lesson 1 Basic Concept of Security and Defense
  3. Lesson 10 Branches, Services and Units of the US Armed Forces
  4. Lesson 11 Maintaining the Force
  5. Lesson 11 Maintaining the Force
  6. Lesson 12 Military Ranks
  7. Lesson 13 Military Uniform
  8. Lesson 13 Military Uniform
  9. Lesson 14 Daily Routine
  10. Lesson 14 Daily Routine
  11. Lesson 15 Officer Training System
  12. Lesson 16 Officer Promotion System

: 520

<== | ==>
Exercise 8 | 

? google:


© studopedia.com.ua '.

: 0.009 .