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Defining pronouns.

The defining pronouns are: all, each, every, everybody, everyone, everything, either, both, other, another.

1. All is a generalizing pronoun, it takes a group of things or persons as a whole.

All may be used as subject, predicative, object, and attribute.

 

...when allis said and done... (London) (SUBJECT)

He just loved me, that is all.(London) (PREDICATIVE)

And Martin forgot allabout it. (London) (OBJECT)

...if allthe doors are closed... (London) (ATTRIBUTE)

 

2. Both points out two persons, things or notions mentioned before.

 

“But there is more to be said,” he continued, after a pause painful to both.

(London)

You can study French, or you can study German, or cut them both out and

study Esperanto... (London)

 

The pronoun both may be used as subject, object, and attribute.

 

Bothseemed to implore something to shelter them from reality. (Hardy)

(SUBJECT)

The light, admitted by windows at both ends, was unfortunately not Chinese.

(Galsworthy) (ATTRIBUTE)

 

When preceded by a preposition both may be used as a prepositional indirect object.

 

He invariably paid the way for both,and it was through him that Martin

learned the refinement of food. (London)

 

3. Each, every, everybody, everyone, everything.

Each and every refer to all the members of the group of persons, things, or notions mentioned before and taken one by one. When used as subject, each etc. require a verb in the singular.

Each may be used as subject, object, and attribute.

 

The train coming in a minute later, the two brothers parted and entered their

respective compartments. Eachfelt aggrieved that the other had not modified

his habits to secure his society a little longer. (Galsworthy) (SUBJECT)

He paid a dollar each. (London) (OBJECT)

It (a blackbird) started singing as I looked out of the window, ending each

phrase abruptly as if jout of breath, a curiously amateur effect. (Braine)

(ATTRIBUTE)

 

When preceded by a preposition each may be used as a prepositional indirect object:

 

They began to deal swiftly with the cocoa tins, slipping a stick of dynamite in

each. (Cronin)

Every is used only as an attribute:

 

This is something more than genius. It is true, every line of it. (London)

Everybody, everyone refer to all the members of the group of persons mentioned before or taken one by one.

The pronouns everybody, everyone have two cases: the commoncase and the genitive case.

The common case may be used as subject and object.

 

You walked into the waiting-room, into a great buzz of conversation, and

there was everybody; you knew almost everybody. (Mansfield) (SUBJECT,

OBJECT)

 

The genitive case of the pronouns everyone and everybody is used as an attribute.

 

...he almost forgot the nearly intolerable discomfort of his new clothes in the

entirely intolerable discomfort of being set up as a target for everybody’s

gaze and everybody’s laudations. (Twain)

 

When preceded by a preposition everyone and everybody may be used as a prepositional indirect object.

 

How know? And without knowing how give such pain to everyone?

(Galsworthy)

 

Everything may be applied to things, animals and abstract notions. In the sentence it is used as subject, predicative, and object.

 

No one will see us. Pull down that veil and everything will be all right.

(London) (SUBJECT)

Of course, class is everything, really. (Galsworthy) (PREDICATIVE)

He was not long in assuming that Brissenden knew everything. (London)

(OBJECT)

 

4. Either has two meanings: (a) each of the two, (b) one or the other.

 

The trail wasn’t three feet wide on the crest, and on either side the ridge fell

away in precipices hundreds of feet deep. (London)

Then he remembered the underwriters and the owners, the two masters a

captain must serve, either of which could and would break him and whose

interests were diametrically opposed. (London)

 

In the sentence either is usually used as attribute or part of the subject (see the above examples).

5. Other, another. Other denotes some object different from the one mentioned before.

Other has two numbers: singular — other; plural — others. It has two cases: the common case and the genitive case (other’s, others’).

 

He walked at the other’s heels with a swing to his shoulders and his legs

spread unwittingly... (London)

 

In the sentence it is used as subject, object, and attribute.

 

After tea the others went off to bathe... (Mansfield) (SUBJECT)

When he brought his suitcase down into the hall, Isabel left the others and

went over to him. (Mansfield) (OBJECT)

But the circumstance was sufficient to lead him to select Tess in preference to

the other pretty milkmaids. (Hardy) (ATTRIBUTE)

 

When preceded by a preposition it may be used as a prepositional indirect object:

 

You are not fair to the others. (Voynich)

Another has two meanings: (1) ‘a different one’, (2) ‘an additional one’.

 

He has learnt sheep-farming at another place, and he’s now mastering dairy

work. (Hardy)

Yes, thought Soames, another year of London and that sort of life, and she’ll

be spoiled. (Galsworthy)

 

Another may be used as subject, object, and attribute.

 

The lantern hanging at her wagon had gone out but another was shining in

her face much brighter than her own had been. (Hardy) (SUBJECT)

Often among the women he met, he would see now one, now another,

looking at him, appraising him, selecting him. (London) (OBJECT)

Now I won’t say another word. I am overwhelmed, crushed. (London)

(ATTRIBUTE)

 


Читайте також:

  1. Classification of pronouns.
  2. Conjunctive pronouns.
  3. Demonstrative pronouns.
  4. Demonstrative Pronouns. Development of Articles
  5. IV. Insert possessive, personal or reflexive pronouns.
  6. IV. Insert possessive, personal or reflexive pronouns.
  7. Negative pronouns.
  8. Personal pronouns.
  9. Reciprocal pronouns.
  10. Reflexive pronouns.
  11. Relative pronouns.




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Conjunctive pronouns. | Negative pronouns.

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