WHOLY SUBSTANTIVIZED ADJECTIVES
1. A native, a relative, a criminal, a black, a white, a liberal, a European, a weekly, a stupid.
I’m not a stupid. He is a white, not a black.
2. To the same group belong adjectives denoting nationality: a Russian, an American, a Greek, a Chinese, a Swiss.
Note. – Names of nations ending in -ss, -sehave one form for both numbers. Examples: a Chiness – two Chinese,a Swiss– two Swiss.
The names of languages Russian, English, etc. also belong to wholly substantivized adjectives and they are wed without any article.
3. To the came group belong some substantivized participles II which are used the singular and plural, but have one form for both numbers.
Example: The accused are the accused is.
PARTIALLY SUBSTANTIVIZED ADJECTIVES
1) Partially substantivized adjectives denote all the persons possessing the quality mentioned by the adjectives as a group, but not separate individuals:
Example: The rich were his enemies.
If separate individuals are meant, some nouns (man, person, people) must be added:
Example: A rich man, rich people.
The same applied to a substantivized adjectives denoting nations and ending in -sh, -ch.Used with the definite article, they denote the whole nations
Example: The English and the French were in arms against each other.
But we say “Englishmen, English people” if separate members of the nation are meant.
2) Some participles can be partially substantivized: the unemployed, the invited.
3) Abstract notions are partially substantivized: the useful, the picturesque, the agreeable, the sentimental, the cold, etc.
Example: He lost his direction in the dark.
4) Substantivized adjectives are used with a singular meaning in the following set prepositional phrases: in the negative, in the open, on the whole, in the main, in short, etc.
5) A comparative is substantivized in the phrases: “to get the better of something, a change for the better”.
6) A superlative is substantivized in the following expressions: “in the least, for the best, at one’s best”.
PART V ADVERB
THREE KINDS OF ADVERBS
The three kinds of Adverbs are:
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