Familiar colloquial style.

Literary colloquial style.

Publicist style.

Scientific-professional style.

Official business style.

Each style, according to Morokhovsky has a combination of distinctive features. Among them we find oppositions like 'artistic - non-artistic', 'presence of personality - absence of it', 'formal - informal situation', 'equal - unequal social status' (of the participants of communication), 'written or oral form'. Morokhovsky emphasizes that these five classes of what he calls "speech activity" are abstractions rather than realities, they can seldom be observed in their pure forms: mixing styles is the common practice.

According to Morokhovsky's approach language as a system includes types of thinking differentiating poetic and straightforward language, oral and written speech, and ultimately, bookish and colloquial functional types of language.

The literary standard of the English language, like that of any other developed language, is not so homogeneous as it may seem. In fact the standard English literary language in the course of its development has fallen into several subsystems each of which has acquired its own peculiarities which are typical of the given functional style. What we here call functional styles are also called registers or discourses.

In the English literary standard we distinguish the following major functional styles (hence FS):

1) The language of belles-lettres.

2) The language of publicistic literature.

3) The language of newspapers.

4) The language of scientific prose.

5) The language of official documents.

As has already been mentioned, functional styles are the product of the development of the written variety of language.1 Each FS may be characterized by a number of distinctive features, leading or subordinate, constant or changing, obligatory or optional. Most of the FSs, however, are perceived as independent wholes due to a peculiar combination and interrelation of features common to all (especially when taking into account syntactical arrangement) with the leading ones of each FS.

Each FS is subdivided into a number of substyles. These represent varieties of the abstract invariant. Each variety has basic features common to all the varieties of the given FS and peculiar features typical of this variety alone. Still a substyle can, in some cases, deviate so far from the invariant that in its extreme it may even break away.

The belles-lettres FS has the following substyles:

a) the language style of poetry; b) the language style of emotive prose; c) the language style of drama.

b) The publicistic F S comprises the following substyles:

a) the language style of oratory ['ɔrət(ə)rɪ]; b) the language style of essays;

c) the language style of feature articles[2] in newspapers and journals.

c) The newspaper F S falls into a) the language style of brief news items and communiqués [kə'mjuːnɪkeɪ]; b) the language style of newspaper headings and c) the language style of notices (, ) and advertisements (; ).

d) The scientific prose F S also has three divisions: a) the language style of humanitarian sciences; b) the language style of "exact" sciences; c) the language style of popular scientific prose.

e) The official dcuments FS can be divided into four varieties: a) the language style of diplomatic documents; b) the language style of business documents; c) the language style of legal documents; d) the language style of military documents.

The classification given above to our mind adequately represents the facts of the standard English language.

In conclusion, weve looked through a great number of classifications of the FSs, but the main one, the only which will be helpful for us Galperins point of view.

[1] ,

[2] A Feature article is a newspaper or magazine article that is written to entertain and inform the reader. It does contain some elements of the short story and is written with a lead to get the reader's attention and then uses conversational tone to present the reader with information to evoke an emotional response.


  3. Scientific Prose Style.

: 1960

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Scientific Prose Style. | .

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