Orthographic Dictionaries

Orthoepic Dictionaries

Dictionaries of Quotations, Cliches, Proverbs and Sayings

Dictionaries of Abbreviations and Signs

Dictionaries of Foreign Words

- Mawson C.O. Dictionary of Foreign Terms. N.Y., Bantam Books;

- Newmar K. M. Dictionary of Foreign Words & Phrases. Lnd. Thames and Hudson, 1950;

- Bliss A.J. Dictionary of Foreign Words and Phrases in Current English. Lnd., Routledge, 1966;

- Carrol D. The Dictionary of Foreign Terms in the English Language. N.Y., Hawthron, 1973.

- Patridge E.A. Dictionary of Abbreviations. Lnd. Constable;

- Allen E. Dictionary of Abbreviations and Symbols. Lnd., 1944;

- Buttress F.A. World List of Abbreviations. 3rd ed. Lnd., Leonard Hill, 1966.

- Stevenson B. Book of Quotations, Classical and Modern. Lnd., Cassel (70.000); The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. 3rd ed. Oxford, 1979 (70.000)

- Bartlett J. Familiar Quotations. Lnd. Macmillan.

- Cohen J. M. and M. J. Penguin Dictionary of Quotations;

- Concise Oxford Dictionary of Quotations;

- Tripp R.T. The International Thesaurus of Quotations. N.Y.

- Jones D. An English Pronouncing Dictionary / Revised by A.C. Gimson. Lnd., Dent.);

The first edition of the dictionary appeared in 1917, we deal now with the 14th edition (Prof. Gimson A.).

For the American variant of English the most popular is Kenyon J.S. and Knoot T.A. Dictionaries.

Strictly speaking these are not dictionaries but lists of words with correct spelling and division into syllables.

- Lewis N. Dictionary of Correct spelling. N.Y., 1962;

- Maxwell C.H. The Pergamon Oxford.


Theoretical Problems of Lexicography

1. The definition of the volume of the semantic structure of words, semantic components of meaning.

If sharp has 21 meanings, shall we speak about meaning or usage? Compare a heavy purse and heavy with food.

2. Distinction between meanings which are closely connected.

3. Distinction between meaning and extralinguistic correlation.

4. The problem of definitions.

5. Glosses (everything but definitions and headlines).

It is easier to define the meaning of words if the illustrations are rich. The Part of Speech problem is very acute and for the English language it is connected with loss of inflexions and conversion of one part of speech into another. One and the same orthographic and phonetic complex concentrates in itself different parts of speech: in, for, by. In COD (Concise Oxford Dictionary) there are 5 homonyms of over. Is it one word with many functions? In Müllers dictionary over is treated as an adjective, an adverb and a preposition. It is connected with a global problem of the distinction of language and speech. In English the attribute is used before nouns (the attributive usage of nouns).

European languages are heterogeneous with respect to qualitative and deictic adverbs (red and slowly). Such verbs as make up and look after are phrasal verbs.

There are many words with a diffuse (vague) virtual meaning. Their actual meaning is felt only in speech. In normative grammars adjectives and adverbs are differentiated but they are not always differentiated in dictionaries: Er ist gut. Er spricht gut.

A special group of words in English beginning with a - ablage, asleep, aloof, akimbo are treated as words with a non-differentiated meaning (800) and are presented in dictionaries with different notes (). V. Yartseva

and B.Ilyish, consider them to be statives (representing the category of State). R. Quirk, finds 14 adjectives among them alone, aloof, asleep, etc. It happens so that adjectives may be used in a grammatical meaning of adverbs and vice versa.

English adverbs are important in pedagogical practice as there is a great number of motivated and non-motivated word combinations: at first sight, at every step, arm-in-arm, to the right.

Proudly with pride, arm-in-arm ?

The following word-combinations may serve as illustrations in the entry ( ) with a Key word

To pull smbs leg refers to leg

To shake smbs leg refers to shake

These stable adverbial groups are not singled out as separate vocabulary units. Units of language and speech are combined. Dictionaries give very poor information about the connection of words.


  1. Types of dictionaries

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