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Characteristics and features of scientific and technical texts

The scientific and technical literatures include the following types of texts:

- the actual scientific and technical literature, i.e., monographs, digests and articles on various issues of science and technology;

- scientific and technical coursebooks (textbooks, reference books, etc.);

- scientific and popular literature from different fields of engineering;

- technical and supporting documentation;

- technical advertising, patents and more.

 

The language of scientific and technical literature has its features: grammatical, lexical, phraseological, abbreviations.

 

The grammatical structure of sentences of scientific and technical texts has several peculiarities:

1. The presence of long sentences that include a large number of
principal and subordinate parts of the sentence. However, depending on subject and predicate words are often away from the word, which they define.

This approach possesses the advantage over the experimental method of greater flexibility.

2. The use of multi-attribute combinations.

Pulse microwave radar station; airfield surface movement indicator; ect.

3. The use of definitions established by ties of entire syntactic groups.

Temperature dependent замість dependent on temperature. Circulation induced effects замість effects induced by circulation.

4. The use of syntax, passive constructions, phrases (objective case of the infinitive, nominative with infinitive).

The application of electronics was changed our life.

5. Having some omissions of function words (articles, auxiliary verbs) especially in tables, graphs, specifications.

 

Term _ ___________________________________________

The same term has different meanings within different sciences. For example, in engineering valve- клапан, and in radio valve - електронна лампа. Particular difficulties for translation are the cases where the same term has different meanings depending on the device or equipment. For example, the term key - ключ, шпилька, кнопка, перемикач and others. The translation of the term depends on the context.

The greatest difficulty for translation is a term-neologisms. These terms do not appear usually in the dictionary. There are especially many neologisms among brand names, i.e. the names of certain products produced by the company. Special role is given to stereotyped words and phrases (cliché, idioms and ready-made phrases).

In addition to the terms, technical texts are characterized by the use of special technical phraseology. This includes cases where common words in certain phrases terminology become important. For example, electric eye- фотоелемент, atmospheric disturbance - атмосферні перешкоди.


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