Compare the meanings of the given words. Define what semantic features are shared by all the members of the group and what semantic properties distinguish them from each other.


State the difference in the pragmatic aspect of lexical meaning in the following pairs of words. Pay special attention to the register of communication. State the possible participants of the communicative situation and their roles on which tenors of discourse are based.

State what image underlies the meaning of the italicized verbs. Give the meanings of these verbs.

Model:I heard what she said, but it didn't sink into my mind until much later.

The meaning of the verb sink is based on the image of 'something going down below the surface or to the bottom of a liquid or soft substance'. Sink into means 'to be gradually understood and accepted by (one's mind)'.

1. You should be ashamed of yourself, crawling to the director like that. 2. The crowd fired questions at the speaker for over an hour. 3. Even though divorce is legal, it is still frowned upon. 4. I take back my unkind remarks, I see that they were not justified. 5. Ideas vi&k flying about in the meeting. 6. The children seized on the idea of camping in the mountains, and began making plans. 7. I was following the man when he dived into a small restaurant and I lost track of him. 8. You might catch him in about 11 o'clock. 9. I should imagine that the President was glad to lay down his office. 10. Why are you trying to pin the blame on me?

Model:to interrupt to butt in: Don't interrupt when your mother is speaking. There is an awful man in the front row who butts in whenever you pause.


Words Register of communication Participants of the communicative situation Roles, which tenors of discourse are based on
interrupt neutral parent child family roles
butt in informal people who know each other well enough social roles

1. certainly unquestionably:I'm sorry if upset you, dear. I certainly didn't mean to. Japan has unquestionably one of the most successful economies in the world. 2. dough money:He only married her for her dough. How much money will you pay me for this work, sir? 3. picture photograph:Karen showed me a picture of her new boyfriend he's very good-looking. Visitors are not allowed to take photographs inside the museum. 4. skirt girl:So, Bill, off to chase some skirts I didn't know you were friends with the girl I had seen you with last night. 5. quality thing: Thereare certain qualities in Orwell's prose that I greatly admire. One of the things I like about Mary is the way she always keeps smiling, even when there are problems.

  wage a fixed regular payment, typically paid on a daily or weekly basis, made by an employer to an employee, especially to a manual or unskilled worker
  salary a fixed regular payment, typically paid on a monthly basis but often expressed as an annual sum, made by an employer to an employee, especially a professional or white-collar worker
  pay the money paid to someone for regular work
  fee a payment made to a professional person (e.g. to a lawyer, writer) or to a professional or public body in exchange for advice or services
  Income money received, especially on a regular basis, for work or through investments
reputation the general opinion that people have about a person, organization based on what they have heard, read, seen, or experienced
image the idea or opinion that people have about a person, organization, especially when this has been deliberately made or planned
name the reputation a person or an organization has because of something they do or because of the quality of what they produce, usually when this is good
prestige the respect and good reputation a person, organization has because they have a high position in society, are admired by people
stature a reputation for being very good at something very important or influential that makes people respect you




  1. Analyze the meanings of the italicized words. Identify the result of the changes of the connotational aspect of lexical meaning in the given words.
  2. Characteristics and features of scientific and technical texts
  3. Chemical properties of oxygen
  4. Complete the given statements from the text
  5. Divergences in the semantic structure of words
  6. Free Word-Groups Versus Phraseological Units Versus Words
  7. Groupe SEB
  8. Identify the period of borrowing of the French, Greek, Russian and German words given in task 6.
  9. Interrelation of Etymological and Stylistic Characteristics of Words.
  10. Lexico-Grammatical groups
  11. Named groups of data models.

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Analyze the meanings of the italicized words. Identify the result of the changes of the connotational aspect of lexical meaning in the given words. | 

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