Analyze the meanings of the italicized words. Identify the result of the changes of the connotational aspect of lexical meaning in the given words.

Model: villain: 'a feudal serf, peasant cultivator in subjection to a lord' -'a person guilty or capable of a crime or wickedness'

The result of the change of the connotational aspect of lexical meaning of the word villain is that the word acquired a derogatory emotive charge (deterioration of meaning).

1) cunning: 'possessing erudition or skill' - 'clever in deceiving'; .') knight: 'manservant' - 'noble courageous man'; 3) fond: 'foolish, infatuated ( )' 'loving, affectionate'; 4) gang: 'a group of people going together' - - 'an organized group of criminals'; 5) marshal: 'manservant attending horses' 'an officer of the highest rank in the armed forces'; 6) coarse: 'ordinary, common' -- 'rude or vulgar'; 7) minister, 'a servant' 'a head of a government department'; 8) enthusiasm: 'a prophetic or poetic frenzy (, )' -'intense and eager enjoyment, interest, or approval'; 9) violent: 'having marked or powerful effect' - 'using or involving physical force intended to hurt, damage, or kill someone or something'; 10) gossip: 'a godparent, a person related to one in God' - 'the one who talks scandal; tells slanderous stories about other people'.

8. Give possible interpretations of the sentences paying special attention to the italicized words. State the difference between meaning of the italicized words and sense which these words lend to the whole utterance or the situation.

Model:I won't go further, I am afraid of the dog ahead. Don't worry. To all appearances, it won't bite, it /s just barking.

to bark

Meaning Sense
to make the short sharp (loud) sound that dogs and some other animals make such behaviour of the dog implies that the dog itself is frightened by the appearance of the people

1. The discreet door was shut with a bang. 2. She failed to buy an expensive little box and she felt a strange pang. 3. I turned to my friend but he had gone to the house and was leaning against it with his face to the wall. 4. Rosemary brought the beggar to her luxurious apartment. She helped the girl off with her coat. But what was she to do with it now? Rosemary left the coat on the floor. 5. She didn't dine with them. She insisted on leaving. 6. He got up from his chair, but he was moving slowly, like an old man. He put the newspaper down very carefully, adjusting its creases with lingering fingers. They were trembling a little. 7. He felt that he had behaved badly in losing his temper while she had so admirably controlled hers. He sought for a crushing phrase, some final intimidating repartee. But before that (the phrase) came she closed quietly the door in his face. 8. The girl went to her father and pulled his sleeve. 9. He was longing to begin to be generous. 10. She was a resigned little woman with shiny red hands and work-swollen finger knuckles.



  1. Arrange the following units into two lexical and two terminological sets. I Give them corresponding names.
  2. Articulatory aspect of speech sounds
  3. Classification of word meaning
  4. Compare the meanings of the given words. Define what semantic features are shared by all the members of the group and what semantic properties distinguish them from each other.
  5. Complete the given statements from the text
  6. Development of the Continuous Aspect
  7. Grammatical meaning.
  8. Grammatical meaning.
  9. Identify the period of borrowing of the French, Greek, Russian and German words given in task 6.
  10. Independent Vowel Changes in Proto-Germanic
  11. Interrelation of Etymological and Stylistic Characteristics of Words.

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Suggest the meanings of the words according to their sound-form. Check yourself by a dictionary. | Compare the meanings of the given words. Define what semantic features are shared by all the members of the group and what semantic properties distinguish them from each other.

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