Identify the period of borrowing of the French, Greek, Russian and German words given in task 6.

Write down in the space provided a letter, which indicates the language from which the given words were borrowed. In case of difficulty consult the Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology.

State whether the given words were borrowed into the English language directly or indirectly, i.e. through another language. Define the source and origin of the given borrowed words.

Write out phraseological units formed with the help of the italicized words which are of native origin. State what these phraseological units denote. Translate the sentences into Russian.

Give derivatives of the following words of native origin. In case of difficulty consult a dictionary.


The word heat has the following derivatives: to heat, heater, heated, heatedly, heating, heatstroke, heatproof, heat-lightning.

Lord, hat, red, grass, to feed, quick, stone, to feel, heavy, to look.


Model:I am completely at one with Michael on this issue.

The phraseological unit at one with smb. denotes' in agreement or harmony'. .

1. I'm sure I can finish the article I just need to get my head down this afternoon. 2. I'm afraid Lisa's family do not stand a chance. I doubt if their advisers will let them take it to court. 3. You know Jack. He can't help chatting up any pretty girl he meets. It doesn't mean a thing, but if you don't like it why not show him it's a game that two can play. 4. The small fry are soon going to be pushed out of business by all these multinationals. 5. The organization that looked so solid and dependable turned out to be a house of cards. 6. It really knocked me for six when my ex-boyfriend announced he was getting married. 7. Malcolm, who is a quiet but determined young rider, has now made his mark on the international show jumping front. 8. 1 swept the floor and polished the table, and then, for good measure, 1 cleaned the windows. 9. He was very much the blue-eyed boy in the office. 10. She criticized members of the committee for sitting on the fence and failing to make a useful contribution to the debate. 11. The legal difference between negligence and recklessness is a bit of a grey area. 12. If the insurance company won't pay for the damage, I'll be up a tree.


Model:sphinx < ME < L < Gr Sphi'gx

0 The word sphinx was borrowed into the English language indirectly, i.e. through another language. The source of borrowing is Latin, whereas the origin of borrowing is Greek.

1) obelisk < L obeliscus < Gr obeliskos; 2) please (v) < ME plaise, plese < OF plaisir < L placere; 3) easy < ME < OF aisie; 4) character < ME caracter < OF caractere < L character < Gr kharakter; 5) poor < ME povere, pore < OF povre < L pauper; 6) averse < L aversus; 7)climate < (O)F climat or L clima, cllmat < Gr klima, klimat; 8) mania < ME < L mania < Gr mania; 9) hurricane < Sp huracan; 10) risk < F risque < It risco; \\)fate < It fato < L fatum; 12) dame <
(O)F damner < L damnare; 13) obese < L obesus; 14) tender < OF
tender < L tener; 15) gnosis < Gr gnosis; 16) alarm < ME < OF alarme < It allarme.


a Celtic Scandinavian e Greek g Spanish i German
b Latin d French fRussian h Italian


muzhik ... f

tobacco ... g


cup, to cast..., anemia ..., samovar..., Avon ..., kindergarten, banana..., law ..., government., violin ..., halt..., fellow..., London..., promenade ..., umbrella ..., criterion..., armada..., Exe ..., cosmonaut, anger ..., motto ..., power ..., candle ..., mosquito ..., waltz..., hormone ..., plant..., verst..., to take ..., nickel.., wall..., eponym..., Kilbride ..., guerilla..., poodle ..., lieutenant.., tornado ..., the Downs..., kvass ..., bandit..., interior..., restaurant, tundra ..., gondola ..., anamnesis.


Model:muzhik, stroll

The word muzhik was borrowed from Russian in the 17th century. The word stroll was borrowed from German in the 17th century.


8. Match the translation borrowings on the left with the original phrases/ words on the right. State the origin of the latter.

Model:11 h (Latin)

a)infra dignitatem b)Wunderkind c) d)el momento de la verdad e) circulus vitiosus f) g) h) sub judice i) cela va sans dire j) cause célèbre k) prima-ballerina

1.the moment of truth

2. word-combination

3. below one's dignity

4. first dancer

5. that goes without saying

6. fellow-traveller

7. wonder child

8. vicious circle

9. famous case

10.collective farm

11.under consideration



  2. Analyze the meanings of the italicized words. Identify the result of the changes of the connotational aspect of lexical meaning in the given words.
  3. Archaic, obsolete and historic words
  4. Assimilation of borrowings.
  5. Borrowing
  6. Combine the following words into sentences.
  7. Compare the meanings of the given words. Define what semantic features are shared by all the members of the group and what semantic properties distinguish them from each other.
  8. Complete the given statements from the text
  9. Die erste (germanische) Lautverschiebung
  10. Divergences in the semantic structure of words
  11. Free Word-Groups Versus Phraseological Units Versus Words

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