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Exercises

Talking Points

AS ACOUSTIC, ARTICULATORY AND AUDITORY UNITS

SOUNDS OF SPEECH

WORKSHOP ON LECTURE 2

 

1. From what points of view can speech sounds be analyzed?

2. What physical properties of speech sounds do you know?

3. How does the power, vibrator, resonator, obstructer mechanisms work?

4.What are articulatory differences between vowel, consonants and sonorants?

5. What are the four main principles of consonant classification?

6. What are the principal differences in the articulation bases of the English and Ukrainian consonants?

7. What are the principles of vowel classification?

8. How are vowels classified according to the movement of the bulk of the tongue?

9. What do you know about the principle of lip participation and the degree of tenseness in the articulation of vowels?

10. How are vowels classified according to their tenseness and length?

11. What is the difference between checked and unchecked vowels?

12. What do you know about stability of articulation in vowel production?

13. What are the differences in the articulation bases of English and Ukrainian vowel sounds?

 

1. Explain the articulation of /p, t, k/ and /b, d, g/ from the viewpoint of the work of the vocal cords and the force of exhalation.

2. Explain the articulation of /m, n, r/ from the point of view of the position of the soft palate.

3. Explain the articulation of /w, j, h/ from the viewpoint of the active organ of speech.

4. Explain the articulation of /b/and /f/from the viewpoint of noise producing foci.

5. Transcribe these words and read them. Observe the aspiration of the initial /p, t. k/.

people take courts
paper time cold
purpose town careful
possible ties car
put tennis cook
pence took covered
pity lexis cost
poor till kissed
pieces till campus
port turned curtly
penny total cottage
  toss current
  tin colour

 

6. Read these words. Observe the apical and cacuminal positions of the tip of the tongue in pronouncing the English /t, r/ and the dorsal in pronouncing the Ukrainian //.

    take   rates
tent read /red/
time rhyme
talk rock
tell Wren
town round
Tim rim
ton run
ties rise
tow room
tear rear
take rake
team real
teach reach
ticket ricket
toast roast

7. Read these Ukrainian and English words. Avoid palatalization of English initial consonants before the front vowels /:, , ei/.

 

- pit - gay - dill - seal - till
- kit - tik - sill - meal - veal

 

8. Explain the articulation of the /i:, e, æ/ sounds from the viewpoint of the horizontal and vertical movements of the tongue.

9. Explain the articulation of the /ə, :/ sounds from the view point of the horizontal and vertical movements of the tongue. Compare these sounds with the Ukrainian vowel sounds /e, a/.

10. Explain the articulation of the /u:, ɔ:, a:/ sounds from the viewpoint of the horizontal and vertical movements of the tongue.

11. Explain the articulatory differences between the /i: -ı/, /u : - u/, /ɔ : -ɔ/ sounds.

12. Transcribe these words and read them. Observe the difference between the fully front /i:/ and the front-retracted /ı/.

(a) seem - since (b) read - rid

meal - mill steal - still

mean - mince creek - crick

sleep - slip sleet - silt

(c) team - Tim (d) seen - sin

feel - fill dealer - dinner

been - chill heat - hit

cheap - chip beat - bit

13. Transcribe these words and rend them. Observe the difference between the mid-open /e/and the fully open (low) /æ/.

a) bed - bad (b) head - had

then - then ten - tan

plenty - plan left - lad

else - Alice let -slack

latter - ladder select - relax

c) French- ran (d) end - and

pence - pants then-than

burial-barrow anyway - family

twenty - twang bed - back

many - matter helping - happy

(e) dead - Dad (f) ten - tan

any - Alice men - man

Shelly - shall said - sad

merry - married bed - bad

Henry - happy chest - chap

(g) Henry - hat (h) any - anxious

central - sandy bet - back

cheviot - channel plenty - platform

many - map flesh - flash

vessel - value elderly - anxious

14. Transcribe these words and read them. Observe the difference between the low long vowel of broad variation /a:/ and the low short vowel of narrow variation /ʌ/.

(a) calm - come (b) aunt - under (c) marvel - money

rather - running hard - hundred laugh - lovely

barn - button dark - dull past - puzzling

lark - luck basket - above market - mug

(d) darn - don (e) Arnold others (f) hardly - honey

Bart - but master - monkeys rather - rubbed

cart - cut started - study last - luck

March - much enlarge - instructor last- must

(g) France front (h) arm - other

harbours - hundred hardly - hundred

advantage - above started - studied

half - hut March - much

15. Transcribe these words and read them. Observe the difference between the high /j:, ı/, the mid /e/ and the low /æ/.

bid - bed - bad team - ten - ten

rid - read - rat hid - head - bad

will - men - man lift - left - lad

Sid - said - sad lit - let - lack

pit - pet - pat mean - many - matter

16. Transcribe these words and read them. Observe the difference between the back /ɔ:/, the mid /ə/ and the front /æ/

all - earl - shall torn - turn - tan

caught - curt - cot call - curl - cat

walk - work - whack board - bird - bad

for - fur - fat chalk - church - channel

warm - worm - twang saw - sir - sad

more - mercy - man caution - curtain - cat

lawn - learn - lad

Recommended Literature on the topic:

.., .. , .. , .. . . .: , 1996. 285 .; .., .. , .. . . .: , 1997. 384 .; Leonteva S.F. A Theoretical Course of English Phonetics. M.: Vyshaya Shkola, 1980. 271 p.; Babiychuk L.V., Bekhta I.A. Lecture Notes on the English Phonetics. Lviv: Aral, 2008. 106 p. Pike, Kenneth L. (1943). Phonetics: A critical analysis of phonetic theory and a technic for the practical description of sounds. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press; Ladefoged, Peter (1996). Elements of Acoustic Phonetics (2nd ed.). The University of Chicago Press, Ltd. London; Stevens, Kenneth (2000). Acoustic Phonetics (Current Studies in Linguistics). The MIT Press, New Ed edition;

Fant, Gunnar. (1960). Acoustic theory of speech production, with calculations based on X-ray studies of Russian articulations. Description and analysis of contemporary standard Russian (No. 2). Gravenhage: Mouton. (2nd ed. published in 1970); Jakobson, Roman; Fant, Gunnar; & Halle, Morris. (1952). Preliminaries to speech analysis: The distinctive features and their correlates. MIT acoustics laboratory technical report (No. 13). Cambridge, MA: MIT.; Johnson, Keith. (2003). Acoustic and auditory phonetics (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers.; Liberman, A.M. (1957). "Some results of research on speech perception". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 29(1): 117123.; Warren, R.M. (1970). "Restoration of missing speech sounds". Science 167: 392393.; Garnes, S., Bond, Z.S. (1976). "The relationship between acoustic information and semantic expectation". Phonologica 1976: 285-293.; Massaro, D.W. (1989). "Testing between the TRACE Model and the Fuzzy Logical Model of Speech perception". Cognitive Psychology 21: 398421.

 


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