Talking Points


1. What is assimilation, adaptation, elision?

2. What types of assimilation do you know?

3. What is the merging of stages?

4. What is the interpenetration of stages?

5. What is the difference between the close and loose type of articulatory transition?

6. Give examples of contemporary elision.


1. Read the pair of words below, characterize subsidiary variants of vowel phonemes due to adaptation.

a) booty /bu:tı/ beauty /'bju:tı/

moon /mu:n/ music /mju:zık/

b) bed /bed/ bell /bel/

wet /wet/ well /wel/

c) coop /ku:p/ cat /kæt/ keen/ki:n/

goose /gu:s/ cattle /'kætl/ keep /ki:p/

d) peel /pi:l/ pool /pu:l/

tea /ti:/ too /tu:/ tore /t ɔ:/

geese /gi:s/ goose /gu:s/ gorge /g ɔ:dӡ/

2.Read the pairs below. What variants of the alveolar /t, d, n/ should be used before /θ, ð/which follow them?

Eight /eıt/ eighth /eıtθ/

that evening /ðæt i:wnıη/ that theme /ðæt θi:m/

wide /wəıd/ width /wıdθ/

read it /ri:dıt/ read this /ri:dðıs/

ten /ten/ tenth /tenθ/

on my table / ɔn maı teıbl/ on the table / ɔn ðə teıbl/

heal /hi:l/ health /helθ/

all his / ɔ:l hız/ all this /' ɔl ðıs/

3. What variants of the /r/ phoneme are used: a) when it is preceded by /θ, ð/in three, thread, with Ukraine b) when it is preceded by voiceless consonant in shriek, fry, try, free; c) when its followed by / ɔ:, u:/ in roar, room, rule.

4. Read the pair below. What variants of the consonants /d, g, ӡ/ are used before /w/?

a) dell /del/ b) dwell /dwel/

luggage /lʌgıdӡ/ language /læŋgwıdӡ/

gendarme /ӡa:nda:m/ bourgeois /buə: ӡwa/

c) read well /ri:d wel/ the bag which disappeared

/ðə bæg wıtʃ dısəpıəd/

5. Read the examples below. How are sonorants modified

a) in the clusters /pl, pr, tw, tr, kw, kl, kr/ before a stressed vowel?

b) in the clusters /pj, tj, kj, fl, fj, r, j, w, sw, sl, sj, sm, sn/ before a stressed vowel?

a) least /li:st/ please /pli:z/ white /waıt/ quite /kwaıt/
  reek /ri:k/ creak /kri:k/ lick /lık/ click /klık/
  week /wi:k/ twitter /twıtə/ woke /wəuk/ quote /kwəut/
  dress /dres/ stress /stress/ rye /raı/ cry /kraı/
  rise /raız/ price /praıs/ wing /wıŋ/ twinkle /twıŋkl/


b) rigid /rıdӡıd/ frigid /frıdӡıd/ well /wel/ swell /swel/
  use /ju:s/ fugitive /fju:dӡıtıv/ leek /li:k/ sleet /sli:t/
  wrote /rəut/ throat /θrəut/ mold /məuld/ smoke /sməuk/
  exasperate /ıg'za:spəreıt/ entrap /ın'træp/ knee /ni:/ sneeze /sni:z/
  light /laıt/ slight /slaıt/ wear /wεə/ swear /swεə/


6. Explain the mechanism of a) the orally exploded variants of /p, b, t, d, k/ in the left column, b) the nasally exploded variants of /p, b, t, d, k / followed by /m, n/ in the right column.

help us /help əs/ help me /help mi:/

departing /dıpa:tıŋ/ department /dı'pa:tmənt/

don't ask /dəunta:sk/ don't know /'dəunt nəu/

darker /da:kə/ darkness /'da:knıs/

ask us /a:sk əs/ ask me /a:sk mi:/

7. Explain the mechanism of the laterally exploded variants of the /t, d/ phonemes followed by /1/ in:

little /lıtl/ that lesson /'ðæt˛lesn/

middle /mıdl/ good luck /'gud˛lαk/

8. Transcribe the words below, Single out the vowels that may be elided in these words.

nursery temporary reasonable

petitioner phonetically parliament

policeman potato buffalo

difficult preference government

banana secretary bachelor

boundary Edinburgh naturally

several especially awfully

suppose carefully comfortable

9. Transcribe the words below. Single out the consonants that may by elided in these words.

handbag humpty-dumpty landscape

postman attempt sanctuary

a sixth round empty next stop

last Saturday night time lamb

next time crumbs punctual

10. Give examples of historically established elision in words with the clusters /wr, kn, gn, mb, mn, lk/.


Read the words, observe the stronger aspiration of /p, t, k/ before long vowels and diphthongs. Compare with the Ukrainian /n, t, k/ pronounced without aspiration.

port tar car

Pete table cable

power tower cow

pit tip cat nap

12. Read the pairs of words; describe the mechanism of voiceless fortis, voiced lenis difference, which is functional here.


plight blight; try dry; crate greet; found bound; tune dune; piece bees; penny Benny; park bark; twelve dwell.

13. Read the word combinations below. Observe and explain the mechanism of articulation of two plosionless slops.


help Peter

club building

at times

good day

black coffee

14. Pronounce the words and word combination. Underline the sounds affected by assimilation, describe its type:


breadth, wealth, at that, afraid, apron, thrive.


15. Arrange these English and Ukrainian words under the headings:

(1) aspiration, no aspiration; (2) palatalization a) loose CV transition, b) close CV transition; (3) labialization, labialization with the lip protrusion.

top, bee, pit, built, port, meal, cope, deep, beauty, tern, corn, music, pepper, onion, peace, come, lean, car, cable, lion, dean, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , coop, tool, tall, call, gorge, goose, doom, dawn, room, thorn


16. Arrange these words under the headings:

(1) lateral plosion

(2) nasal plosion

(3) loss of plosion (two plosionless stops).

actor, curdled, muddle, needless, mottled, Britain, begged, oughtn't, at last, what kind, admit, beck to back, madness, witness, big books, partner, slept, cotton, great number, sudden, captain, top coat, red light, black goat, ripe cheese, huddle, at night, good looks.



  1. Exercises
  2. Exercises

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