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AND DATA PROCESSING IN MODERN SOCIETY
Read the text and try to understand its content as much as possible.
Define the models of the following expressions and match them with Ukrainian equivalents.
Read and translate the given words. Analyses their suffixes and fill in the table according to their parts of speech.
Noun. Verb. Adjective. Adverb.
Management, business, to double, human, knowledge, to flow, to invent, immediately, to handle, undoubtedly, ideal, dynamic, engineering, computation, recorded, programmable, controller, administrative, managerial, objective, to achieve, automatically, screen, requirement, need electronic, manual.
4. Read the given below – combinations with word structure “noun + noun”. Translate them, using the scheme:
Model: time period = період часу Human activity: space program; engineering
| calculations; job records; production centre;
чого? <- період press control; system diagnostics; control
| system; business operation; management
часу information system; input/output system;
information age; information flow.
5. Read the following group of words and expressions given as the attributes to the word “information”. Make up word – combinations with them to understand their meaning.
Sufficient, complete, a great deal, detailed, reliable, a lot of, valuable, little, lack of, exact, present-day, extensive, up-to-date.
6. Translate the terms and combinations with them:
to set up instructions;
to handle information;
to do high-volume computing tasks;
to store instructions and information;
the computation and analysis of statistical and mathematical data;
scientific and engineering calculations;
to store setup information;
data processing operations.
1 programmable press controller; a) забезпечувати потреби;
2 computerized control system; b)корпоративна мета;
3 total system diagnostics; c) повний системний діагноз;
4 press control system monitors; d) адміністративне управління;
5 managerial control; e) прес з само програмним управлінням;
6 menu-driven press computer; f) перфокартковий комп’ютерний прес;
7 to meet new requirements; g) система комп’ютеризації управління;
8 corporate objective; h)
An outstanding characteristic of modern society is the powerful flow of knowledge and information in different fields of human activities. Information is often called the lifeblood of modern civilization. It plays an ever increasing part in everyday life, management of business, etc.
The scientific activity, with all its technical and economic outcomes and consequences, is today passing through a period of particularly rapid development. For instance, over the past 150 years the range of human knowledge has been doubled every twelve to fifteen years. In 1930, man knew four times as much as he did in 1900; by 1960 man's knowledge had grown sixfold and by the year 2000 it can be expected to be a hundred times what it had been a century ago.
The present-day information explosion must be properly dealt with. To handle the information flow properly and instantly, to help specialists find immediately an information and data needed urgently a multiple of machines have been invented. They are now widely used for this purpose.
The computer, with its millionfold increase2 in man's capacity to handle information, undoubtedly, holds the first place. Without the computer, data and information processing would be impossible, say, in space programs. It is the phenomenal speed of computers that makes them practically well suited to pursuing activities that require instant solution to complex dynamic problems. They are extensively used in the control and monitoring of space vehicles. Computers are ideal for high-volume computing tasks 3 such as the computation and analysis of statistical and mathematical data as well as scientific and engineering calculations.
When production is due to begin 4 materials and parts have to be issued to the production centres and suitability recorded on issue notes which are subsequently recorded on stock and job records. The issues are often priced and extended. These are also data processing operations.
In the industry, for instance, one of the new generation of press control combines a menu-driven press computer with a programmable press controller. The press control
system monitors all vital functions of the stamping system. It provides an infinite capacity for storing all your setup information.
Total system diagnostics B are enhanced by the computer to provide on screen remedies for identifiable problems. Not only do you know why the press has stopped, but now you know where the problem is and how to remedy it.
On-line operating data 6 are automatically recorded. You can now call up a report to tell all about the job while it is running and how long to completion. The computerised control system has the flexibility to meet all production needs, its configuration can be expanded to meet new requirements 7 for more information.
Thus information and data processing is a special activity performed by the administrative organization for the business as a whole. It is concerned with the systematic recording, arranging, filing, processing and dissemination of facts relating to the phisical events occurring in business.
From the above said it can be concluded that data processing systems provide information and information provides the basis for managerial control of business operations to achieve corporate objectives 8 as effectively as possible. This means making the most suitable decisions based on the information provided.
A management information system therefore embraces the data processing systems, control systems (using information provided by the data processing system), and decision-making based on the facts indicated by the control systems.
A data processing system in its simplest form consists of three primary elements: input, processing and output. These elements apply whether the system is manual, mechanical or electronic.
A computer system consists of five elements, viz.9 input, processing, output, storage and control.
It is absolutely necessary for every active member of modern society to be able to use the computer system in data (information) processing and management.
1 to grow sixfold— зрости в шість разів
2 millionfold increase— збільшення (ріст) в мільйон разів
3 high-volume computing tasks— (завдання) обчислення великого обсягу
4 is due to begin— має починатися
5 total system diagnostics— повний системний діагноз
6 on-line operating data— дані, що надходять безпосередньо до оператора
7 tomeet requirements— забезпечувати потреби
8 corporate objective— корпоративна мета
9 viz.(лam. videlicet) — a caмe
*9. Finish the following sentences according to the text.
1. An outstanding feauture of modern society is … .
2. The range of human knowledge has been doubled … .
3. Computers are ideal for … .
4. Information and processing is … .
5. A management information system embraces … .
6. A computer system consists of … .
7. It is absolumely necessary … .
**10. Read the text again and find related words to define the following terms: Explain the difference between “Data processing” and “Computer system”
a) Information and data processing.
b) Data processing system.
c) Computer system.
d) Management information system.
**11. You are going to write a composition on the theme “Data Processing in Modern Society”. Work in pair with your partner. Make rough notes and use them as a reference material. Look through the text and find the information about the ways people solve their problems in different spheres of our life:in science, business, industry etc by means of a computer. Some notes will be helpful for you. Instant solutions of complex dynamic problems; control and monitoring of space vehicles; to do high-volume computing tasks; business operations etc.
**12. Answer the questions on the text.
1.Why is information often called the “lifeblood” of modern civilization?
2.Itow has the range of human knowledge grown over the past 150 yeas?
3.What helps man in storing and processing data and information?
4.In what spheres of man’s activity is a computer helpful?
5.Aow are computers used in industry?
6.What is data and information processing concernd with?
7.Whaat does a management information system embrace?
8.What does a computer system consist of.
***13.Make a plan of the text rendering. Speak about:
1.Data processing system and scientific research.
2.Data processing in industry.
3.Management information system.