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Economy of Great Britain
So, what thing can you associate with the word “economy”?
Remember the definition of this word. What’s the economy?
Ex.1. Read and translate the text. Compose the plan of the text. Entitle it.
The United Kingdom was the first country in the world which became highly industrialized. During the rapid industrialization of the 19-th century, one of the most important factors was that coal deposits were situated near the ground surface, which made mining easy. Coal mining is one of the most developed industries in Great Britain. The biggest coal and iron mines are in the north-east of England, near Newcastle, in Lancashire and Yorkshire; in Scotland near Glasgow; in Wales near Cardiff and Bristol.
Until recent times, Britain’s heavy industry was mainly concentrated in the centre of England and in the London region. Such towns as Birmingham, Coventry and Sheffield produced heavy machines, railway carriages and motor-cars.
In the 20-th century new branches of industry have appeared: electronics, radio, chemical industry and others. Of great importance for Britain is ship-building industry. It is concentrated in London, Glasgow, Newcastle, Liverpool and Belfast. Great Britain produces a lot of wool, and woolen industry is developed in Yorkshire. British woolen products are exported to many countries.
Sea-ports play a great role in the life of the country. London, Liverpool and Glasgow are the biggest English ports, from which big liners go to all parts of the world. Great Britain exports industrial products to other countries and imports food and some other products.
Sheep-farming, cattle-farming and dairy-farming are also important branches of Great Britain’s economy. Chicken farms produce a great number of chickens and eggs for the population.
The south of England is often called the “Garden of England because there are many gardens and orchards there. In the orchards people grow apples, pears, cherries, plums and other fruits, and there are also large plantations of different berries.
Ex.2. Look at these sentences. Do you think they are true or false.
1. The United Kingdom was the first country in the world which became highly industrialized.
2. The biggest coal and iron mines are in the south of England.
3. Until recent times, Britain’s heavy industry was mainly concentrated in the south of England and in the London region.
4. In the 19th century new branches of industry have appeared: electronics, radio, chemical industry and others.
5. The south of England is often called the “Valley of England”.
Ex.3. Complete the sentences.
a) the last; b) the second; c) the first.
a) in the centre; b) in the south; c) in the north-east;
a) London, Liverpool and Glasgow; b) Sheffield, Birmingham and Coventry; c) London, Birmingham and Glasgow.
a) the 20th; b) the 18th; c) the 19th.
a) the “Valley of England”; b) the “Garden of England”; c) the Field of England.
Ex.4. Answer the questions.
Ex.5. Read the text and put the verbs in brackets in the correct form.
The Economy of Great Britain
Little more than a century ago, Britain was “the workshop of the world”. It _____ (to have) as many merchant ships as the rest of the world put together it led the world in most manufacturing industries. Britain _______ (to struggle) to find a balance between government intervention in the economy and an almost completely free-market economy such as existed in the United States. Neither system _______ (to seem) to fit Britain’s needs. People seemed complacent about Britain’s decline, reluctant _______ (to make) the painful adjustments that might be necessary to reverse it. Prosperity Increased during the late 1950s and in the 1960s, diverting attention from Britain’s decline relative to its main competitors. By the mid 1970s both Labour and Conservative economists were beginning ______ (to recognize) the need to move away from Keynesian economics, based upon stimulating demand by Injecting money into the economy. The most notable success of “Thatcherism” was the privatization of previously wholly or partly government-owned enterprises. Indeed, other countries, for example, Italy, Japan, Malaysia and West Germany, ______ (to follow) the British example. Despite such changes, however, by 1990 Britain’s economic problems seemed as difficult as ever. The government _______ (to find) that reducing public expenditure was far harder than expected and that by 1990 it still _______ (to consume) about the same proportion of the GNP as it had ten years earlier. Inflation, temporarily _______ (to control), rose to over 10% and was only checked from rising to thehigh interest rotes which also had the sight effect of discouraging economic growth. In spite of reducing the power to the trade unions, wage demands (most notably senior management salaries) _____ (to rise) faster than prices, indicating that a free labour market did not necessarily solve the wages problem.
Ex.6. Ask the general questions to the sentences.