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Economy of Great Britain

So, what thing can you associate with the word economy?

Remember the definition of this word. Whats the economy?

 

Ex.1. Read and translate the text. Compose the plan of the text. Entitle it.

 

The United Kingdom was the first country in the world which became highly industrialized. During the rapid industrialization of the 19-th century, one of the most important factors was that coal deposits were situated near the ground surface, which made mining easy. Coal mining is one of the most developed industries in Great Britain. The biggest coal and iron mines are in the north-east of England, near Newcastle, in Lancashire and Yorkshire; in Scotland near Glasgow; in Wales near Cardiff and Bristol.

Until recent times, Britains heavy industry was mainly concentrated in the centre of England and in the London region. Such towns as Birmingham, Coventry and Sheffield produced heavy machines, railway carriages and motor-cars.

In the 20-th century new branches of industry have appeared: electronics, radio, chemical industry and others. Of great importance for Britain is ship-building industry. It is concentrated in London, Glasgow, Newcastle, Liverpool and Belfast. Great Britain produces a lot of wool, and woolen industry is developed in Yorkshire. British woolen products are exported to many countries.

Sea-ports play a great role in the life of the country. London, Liverpool and Glasgow are the biggest English ports, from which big liners go to all parts of the world. Great Britain exports industrial products to other countries and imports food and some other products.

Sheep-farming, cattle-farming and dairy-farming are also important branches of Great Britains economy. Chicken farms produce a great number of chickens and eggs for the population.

The south of England is often called the Garden of England because there are many gardens and orchards there. In the orchards people grow apples, pears, cherries, plums and other fruits, and there are also large plantations of different berries.

 

Ex.2. Look at these sentences. Do you think they are true or false.

1. The United Kingdom was the first country in the world which became highly industrialized.

2. The biggest coal and iron mines are in the south of England.

3. Until recent times, Britains heavy industry was mainly concentrated in the south of England and in the London region.

4. In the 19th century new branches of industry have appeared: electronics, radio, chemical industry and others.

5. The south of England is often called the Valley of England.

 

Ex.3. Complete the sentences.

 

  1. The United Kingdom was _______________ country in the world which became highly industrialized.

a) the last; b) the second; c) the first.

  1. Until recent times, Britains heavy industry was mainly concentrated ________________of England and in the London region.

a) in the centre; b) in the south; c) in the north-east;

  1. ________ are the biggest English ports, from which big liners go to all parts of the world.

a) London, Liverpool and Glasgow; b) Sheffield, Birmingham and Coventry; c) London, Birmingham and Glasgow.

  1. In ________ century new branches of industry have appeared: electronics, radio, chemical industry and others.

a) the 20th; b) the 18th; c) the 19th.

  1. The south of England is often called the __________, because there are many gardens and orchards there.

a) the Valley of England; b) the Garden of England; c) the Field of England.

 

Ex.4. Answer the questions.

 

  1. What is the most developed industry in Great Britain?
  2. Where is concentrated heavy industry?
  3. What new branches had appeared in Great Britain in the 20th century?
  4. What sea-ports in Great Britain can you name?
  5. Is British economy connected with farming and gardening?

 

Ex.5. Read the text and put the verbs in brackets in the correct form.

 

The Economy of Great Britain

 

Little more than a century ago, Britain was the workshop of the world. It _____ (to have) as many merchant ships as the rest of the world put together it led the world in most manufacturing industries. Britain _______ (to struggle) to find a balance between government intervention in the economy and an almost completely free-market economy such as existed in the United States. Neither system _______ (to seem) to fit Britains needs. People seemed complacent about Britains decline, reluctant _______ (to make) the painful adjustments that might be necessary to reverse it. Prosperity Increased during the late 1950s and in the 1960s, diverting attention from Britains decline relative to its main competitors. By the mid 1970s both Labour and Conservative economists were beginning ______ (to recognize) the need to move away from Keynesian economics, based upon stimulating demand by Injecting money into the economy. The most notable success of Thatcherism was the privatization of previously wholly or partly government-owned enterprises. Indeed, other countries, for example, Italy, Japan, Malaysia and West Germany, ______ (to follow) the British example. Despite such changes, however, by 1990 Britains economic problems seemed as difficult as ever. The government _______ (to find) that reducing public expenditure was far harder than expected and that by 1990 it still _______ (to consume) about the same proportion of the GNP as it had ten years earlier. Inflation, temporarily _______ (to control), rose to over 10% and was only checked from rising to thehigh interest rotes which also had the sight effect of discouraging economic growth. In spite of reducing the power to the trade unions, wage demands (most notably senior management salaries) _____ (to rise) faster than prices, indicating that a free labour market did not necessarily solve the wages problem.

 

 

Ex.6. Ask the general questions to the sentences.

 

  1. Britain struggled to find a balance between government intervention in the economy and an almost completely free-market economy such as existed in the United States.
  2. Prosperity Increased during the late 1950s and in the 1960s, diverting attention from Britains decline relative to its main competitors.
  3. By the mid 1970s both Labour and Conservative economists were beginning recognized the need to move away from Keynesian economics, based upon stimulating demand by Injecting money into the economy.

 

 


:

  1. Agriculture in Great Britain
  2. Economy of Ukraine
  3. Education in Britain
  4. Education in Great Britain: Higher Education
  5. Education in Great Britain: Schools
  6. Great Britain
  7. Hospitals in Great Britain
  8. Industry of Great Britain
  9. ONE OF THE GREATEST COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD
  10. OUTSTANDING PEOPLE OF GREAT BRITAIN: MARGARET THATCHER, ENGLISH POLITICAL LEADER
  11. Popular Sports and Leisure Activities in Britain




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