Industry of Great Britain

Great Britain is known to be a highly developed industrial country. There are so-called old branches of industry which appeared in the period of industrial revolution and modern branches that appeared only after the Second World War.

Coal-mining is said to be a traditional, old branch of industry. It is to be found in Wales, in the Cumberland Mountains, in the South of Scotland, and in the northern part of England.

Metal industry, including production of steel and non-ferrous metals, is known to have been developing in Scotland, Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, Sheffield, in Wales and other areas of the country.

In 1967 rich reserves of natural gas were discovered in the North Sea near the eastern shores of Great Britain. Natural gas is known to be a good raw material for chemical industry. Chemical industry, especially production of synthetic fibres and plastics, is being developed on a large scale in Wales, in Liverpool, in the mouth of the Thames, in Scotland, in the south of England.

Engineering is the main branch of industry in Great Britain. London, Birmingham, Coventry are known to be the most important centres of motor-car construction. The Greater London, Bristol are the leading centres of aviation industry; Glasgow, Newcastle, Belfast are the biggest ship-building centres.

Among the modern branches are electroengineering, electronic, machine-tool industries which can be found in the Greater London, Leeds, Sheffield, Manchester, Birmingham, Liverpool and many other cities and towns of Great Britain. Halifax is known to be a machine-tool construction centre producing equipment for electric power industry.

Textile industry with the centres in Yorkshire and Lancashier is considered to be one of the oldest in Great Britain. The production of cotton fabrics is reported to be cut in recent years. But the popularity of natural fibres seems to grow again.

Light industry and first of all clothing, footwear, knitting wear and hosiery are developed in Leeds, Nottingham, Manchester, London, Glasgow, Belfast. Light industry goods are of good quality.

Nottingham, Lester and Derby are known to be the most important centres of footwear industry. Many enterprises of food industry are situated in the large industrial centres and also in some rural areas.

Exercise 17. Answer the following questions on the text.

1. Which branches of industry are called old and which are called new ones? 2. In what places is coal found in Great Britain? 3. Where were rich reserves of natural gas discovered? 4. How is the engineering developing in Great Britain? 5. What modern branches of engineering industry are developing in Great Britain? 6. Where is textile industry developed? 7. What can you say about light and food industries in Great Britain?

Exercise 18.Translate the following sentences using Infinitive Constructions.

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Task VII.Retell the text Industry of Great Britain


  1. Agriculture in Great Britain
  2. Bamboo Fabric in Non-Woven Industry
  4. Construction Industry Glossary.
  5. Economy of Great Britain
  6. Education in Britain
  7. Education in Great Britain: Higher Education
  8. Education in Great Britain: Schools
  9. Great Britain
  10. Hospitals in Great Britain
  11. Light Industry in Ukraine

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