Text 3. Treatment of Criminals
I. Read and translate the text.
In the XIX century society turned its attention to punishment. As a result, several approaches to the treatment of criminals were offered by scientists.
According to Bentham's approach, the pain of punishment must be bigger than the pleasure of success in crime. There were fixed punishments for each class of crime.
The neoclassical approach rejected fixed punishments. According to this approach, offenders should be punished differently for the same crime. Children should be punished less severely than adults. Insane people should have limited responsibility for their offences.
The preventive approach focuses on the prevention of crime. It stresses such measures as birth control, censorship, upbringing and others.
The modern approach focuses on individual treatment, especially of juvenile delinquents.
In general, people are beginning to realize that the efforts of the police and the courts are not enough to solve the crime problem. The help of the community is needed.
II. Questions to be answered.
1. What problems did society turn its attention to in the XIX century?
2. What theories and approaches appeared as a result?
3. What is the essence of Bentham’s approach?
4. What is characteristic of the neoclassical approach?
5. What is the main point of difference between Bentham's approach and the neoclassical approach?
6. What does the preventive approach stress?
7. What does the modern approach focus on?
8. What category of people is paid special attention to in the modern approach?
9. Whose help, apart from the efforts of the police, is needed in solving the crime problem?
Lesson 6. Law-Enforcement Bodies. Freedom of Speech