WAYS OF TRANSLATING.
COMMON TERMS OF TRANSLATION.
Apart from the two mentioned above, there are some other terms in the theory of translation. These usually common terms are:
Ø accurate or exact (to what degree?) translation точний переклад;
Ø faithful (or realistic) translation, адекватний/вірний переклад;
Ø faithfulness of translation/interpretation, адекватність/вірність перекладу/ тлумачення;
Ø fidelity (or faithfulness) of translation/interpretation вірність, адекватність перекладу;
Ø equivalent translation/interpretation еквівалентний переклад;
Ø free interpretation вільний переклад,перелицювання;
Ø free adaptation вільний переклад, переробка;
Ø free interpretation вільний переспів,перелицювання;
Ø free/loose translation вільний переклад, переказ;
Ø consecutive interpretation послідовний переклад, усне тлумачення;
Ø off-hand translation/ interpretation переклад/тлумачення без попередньої підготовки (з голосу чи з аркуша);
Ø rehash вільна переробка (вдала чи невдала) твору;
Ø sight translation/interpretation (translation at sight) переклад/ усне тлумачення з аркуша/тексту;
Ø simultaneous translation/ interpretation синхронний переклад;
Ø rough translation робочий варіант перекладу, чорновий переклад and some others.
1. Literal translating,which is to be employed when dealing with separate words whose surface form and structure, as well as their lexical meaning in the source language and in the target language, fully coincide. These are predominantly international by original morphemes, lexemes/words, rarer word-groups having in English and Ukrainian (and often in some other languages too) a literally identical or very similar presentation and identical lexical meaning: administrator адміністратор, director директор, region регіон, hotel/motelготель/мотель, hydrometer гідрометр, Tom Том, etc.
Literal translating, however, can pervert the sense of the source language lexemes or sentences when their lingual form accidentally coincides with some other target language lexemes having quite different meanings: artist митець, художник (rarer артист); decoration відзнака, нагорода (and not декорація); matrass колба (and not матрац); replica точна копія (and not репліка), etc.
2. Verbal translatingis also employed at lexeme/word level. But unlike literal translating it never conveys the orthographic or the sounding form of the source language units, but their denotative meaning only: fearful страшний, fearless безстрашний, helpless безпорадний, incorrect неправильний, mistrust недовір'я (недовіра), superprofit надприбуток, non-interference невтручання, weightlessness невагомість etc.
All the words above are practically translated at the lexico-morphological level, as their lexical meanings and morphological stems are identical to those of the English words (cf. help-less без-порадний, mis-trust не-довір'я, super-profit над-прибуток, etc.).
Verbal translating of polysemantic words permits a choice among some variants which is practically impossible in literal translating, which aims only at maintaining the literal form.
3. Word-for-word translationis another method of rendering sense. It presents a consecutive verbal translation though at the level of word-groups and sentences. This way of translation is often employed both consciously and subconsciously by students in the process of translating alien grammatical constructions/word forms.
4. The interlinear («Interlinear» (from Latin interlineare) i.e., written/printed between the lines) way/method of translatingis a conventional term for a strictly faithful rendering of sense expressed by word-groups and sentences at the level of some text. The latter may be a passage, a stanza, an excerpt of a work or the work itself. The method of interlinear translation may be practically applied to all speech units(sentences, supersyntactic units, passages). Interlinear translation always provides a completely faithful conveying only of content, which is often achieved through various transformations of structure of many sense units. For example, the sentence Who took my book? admits only one word-for-word variant, namely: Хто взяв мою книжку?
5. Literary Translatingrepresents the highest level of a translator's activity. Any type of matter skilfully turned into the target language, especially by a regular master of the pen may acquire the faithfulness and the literary (or artistic) standard equal to that of the source language.
Depending on the type of the matter under translation, this method of performance may be either literary proper or literary artistic.
Literary artistic translation presents a faithful conveying of content and of the artistic merits only of a fiction/belles-lettres passage or work. The latter may be either of a prose or a poetic genre (verse).
Literary proper translation is performed on any other than fiction/belles-lettres passages/works. These may include scientific or technical matter, didactic matter (different text-books), business correspondence, the language of documents, epistolary texts, etc. In short, any printed or recorded matter devoid of artistic merits (epithets, metaphors, etc.).
Literary translations are always performed in literary all-nation languages and with many transformations which help achieve the ease and beauty of the original composition.
4.KINDS OF TRANSLATING / INTERPRETING.
Depending on the form of conveying the sense/content, the following kinds or types of translating/interpreting are to be distinguished:
1.The written from a written matter translating,which rep resents a literary/literary artistic or any other faithful sense-to-sense translating from or into a foreign language.
3.The oral from an oral matter interpreting,which is a regular oral sense-to-sense rendering of a speech/radio or TV interview, or recording which can proceed either in succession (after the whole matter or part of it is heard) or simultaneously with its sounding.
4. The oral from a written matter interpretingis nothing else than interpreting at sight. It can also proceed either simultaneously with the process of getting acquainted with the content of the written matter, or in succession (after each part of it is first read through and comprehended).
5. The written translating from an orally presented matter is, as L.S.Barkhudarov points out1, a rare occurrence. This is because a natural speech flow is too fast for putting it down in the target lan guage (except for a shorthand presentation, which would be then a regular translation, i.e. interpretation from a written matter).