The earth. Volcanoes. Volcano Activity Warning System for Pilots

Exercise 8.1.1 Read and translate the text.

The Earth. The Earth is a planet. A planet is a large body that revolves around and is illuminated by a star, in our case, the Sun. Planet Earth is 7,926 miles in diameter when cut in half through the middle and 24,902 miles in circumference at the equator, an imaginary line that marks the midway point between the North and the South poles. The diameter at the poles is only 27 miles less than the diameter at the equator. It is also remarkably smooth.

The highest point on Earths surface is Mount Everest on the Nepal-China border in Asia at 29,028 feet. The greatest known depth below sea level is the 35,827 foot deep Mariana Trench east of the Philippine Islands in the Pacific Ocean. The fact that oceans and smaller bodies of water cover more than 70 percent of the Earth makes its surface even smoother.

The largest bodies of water are Earths 4 oceans the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and Artic.

Latitudes are imaginary lines drawn on globes to show distances north and south of the equator. North of the Artic Circle and South of the Antarctic Circle are the high latitude or polar regions. Lines of longitude or meridians run north-south. They connect the North Pole to the South Pole and meet at the poles. The Prime Meridian or 0 longitude, runs from the North Pole to the South Pole through the Royal Observatory of Greenwich, England.

Viewed from space, the surface of Earth is made up of continents, islands and oceans.

Continents and islands make up 29 percent of the surface area of Earth. Continents are the larges landmasses on Earths surface.

Seven continents are generally recognized: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe and Australia.

Together, tectonic forces inside the Earth and gradational forces on its surface have produced 4 major types of landforms: 1) mountains; 2) hills; 3) plateaus; 4) plains.

Relief, in this case, refers to variations in the elevation, shape and forms of Earths surface.

Volcanoes. Volcano activity warning system for pilots.Volcano is an opening in the Earths surface through which lava, hot gases and rock fragments erupt (burst forth). The liquid molten rock is called lava after it reaches the surface and magna when underground. Sometimes lava piles up on the surface and forms a volcano like Mount Fuji in Japan or Mount Vesuvius in Italy.

Magna boils up through cracks in Earths crust and creates lava flows that spread out across large areas creating landforms such as the Deccan Plateau of Central India.

Volcanic ash is made up of fragments less than 1/5 inch (0,5 centimeter) in diameter. Sometimes, volcanic ash combines with water in a stream and forms a boiling mudflow. Mudflow may reach speeds of 60 miles (97 km) per hour and can be highly destructive. People have always been both fascinated by the spectacle of volcanic eruptions and terrified of their power.

During the past few years a number of incidents have occurred due to aircraft encounters with volcanic ash clouds following volcanic eruptions. In order to provide for the observation and reporting of volcanic ash clouds and the issuance of warning to pilots and airlines, ICAO, with assistance of other international organizations, has established an international airways volcano watch (IAVW). The corner stones of the IAVW are nine volcanic ash advisory centres which issue advisory which issue advisory information on volcanic ash globally, both to aviation users and meteorological officers concerned.

Recording of special air-reports of volcanic activity. Special air-reports containing observations of volcanic activity form. Forms based on the model form for special air-reports of volcanic activity at Appendix 1 shall be provided for flight crews operating on routes which could be affected by volcanic ash clouds.

Exercise 8.1.2 Answer the question.

1. What is the diameter of the Earth?

2. What is the highest point on Earths surface?

3. What does latitude mean?

4. Is there any difference between latitude& longitude?

5. What country does The Prime Meridian run through?

6. Where does the Prime Meridian run from?

7. How many continents are generally recognized on the Earth?

8. Have you ever seen an erupting volcano?

9. Is there any difference between lava &magna?

10. How is a boiling mudflow formed?

11. What kind of volcanic activity can bring an aircraft into danger?

12. What International organization is deeply concerned about aircraft safety flights during volcanic activity?

Exercise 8.1.3 What do the following abbreviations stand for?


  1. A survive the education system
  2. Activity 2. Preparing to Introduce Someone
  3. Activity Groups
  4. B) Argue the pros and cons of: 1. Tutorial system. 2. Students' uniform. 3. Residential colleges.
  6. Cancer warning over stem cells
  9. Communication systems
  10. COUNT III - Strict Liability-Abnormally Dangerous Activity - Products Liability
  11. Das Schulsystem in Russland
  12. Derivational analysis and basic units of derivational system.

: 620

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