Unit. 8. Color

Ex. 1. :


Imagine a world without color. Like lines, color surrounds us. It is in the reds and purples of the sky at sunset. It is in the lush green of a well-tended lawn. Our moods even have color. We describe someone who is angry as seeing red. A happy, carefree person is said to be in the pink. In this lesson, you will learn about the way color is used in art. In the next lesson, you will practice using color yourself.

Have you ever tried to find a pair of matching socks on a dark winter morning? It is not easy. Without light, all colors look the same. Scientists and artists have long understood this. Both know that coloris what the eye sees when light is reflected off an object.

Some artists use color boldly. Others use it softly. To get these results, artists need to understand the three main properties of color. These are hue, value, and intensity.

Hueis a colors name. Orange, green, and violet are all hues.Three of the hues red, yellow, and blueare known as the primary, or pure, hues. They are called primary because these three are mixed to create all the other hues. Mixing the two primary colors of yellow and blue gives green, a secondary color. Mixing a primary color like red with a secondary color like orange gives red-orange, an

intermediate color. Look at the painting in Figure 81.The artist has overlapped hues tocapture all the colors of the rainbow. Matchthe hues in the painting with those on thecolor wheel. Has the artist used any primaryhues? Which secondary hues has she used?Which intermediate hues has she used?

Figure 81

Helen Hardin. Robed Journey of the Rainbow Clan. 1976. Acrylic. 47 _ 76.2 cm (181⁄2 _ 30_). 1996 Helen Hardin, 1999 Cradoc Bagshaw

The art element, value,is the lightness or darkness of a hue. Value is also considered as aproperty of color. You can change a huesvalue by mixing in white or black. Whenwhite is added to a hue, the resulting coloris said to be a tint. When black is added, theresult is called a shade. Pink is a tint of red.Maroon is a dark shade of red.

Some colors appear lively and brilliant. Others look murky or dull. The difference is called the colors intensity.This is the brightness or dullness of a hue. A strong, bright hue is said to be high-intensity. Pure green is such a hue. A faint, dull hue is said to be low-intensity. Olive green is a hue that fits this description.

One way of lowering a hues intensity is by mixing it with its complementary, or opposite, hue on the color wheel.

You may have heard the term loud used to describe outfits of clothing. The term also refers to a combination of colors that clash. Art, like clothing, makes use of color combinations, or schemes. Different color schemes give different effects. Some color schemes are quiet. Others are exciting. Some common color schemes used by trained artists are monochromatic, analogous, and complementary.

Amonochromatic (mah-noh-kroh-mat-ik) color scheme uses different tints or shades of a single hue. Such a combination can help bring together the parts of a work. Monochromatic color schemes must be used with caution, however, because they can produce a dull, uninteresting effect.

Ex. 2. .

Ex. 3. :

How did the artist use line and color to portray the figures in this painting? (Figure 81)

Ex. 4. :

1. Both know that coloris what the eye sees

2. They are called primary because

3. This is the brightness or

4. You may have heard the term loud

5. Such a combination can help bring together


Ex. 5 . .


Ex. 6 . .


1.Define the term hue.

2.What are the three properties of color?

Unit 9.Mixing Colors

Ex. 1. :


Mixing Colors


Have you ever wondered what the world would be like if there were no colors? What if there were only a few colors? It would probably be a very boring world compared to the one we live in now. Everyday you are surrounded by many different colors that come in different shades and hues. These are the results of color mixing. Today, we are going to learn about two different types of color mixing: additive color mixing and subtractive color mixing.


Mixing Color Lights

Mixing color light is called additive color mixing because the combined colors are formed by adding light from two or more light sources, which will give more illumination than any of the lights by themselves. In other words, the brightness of the lights is added together. For example, adding green light and blue light produces cyan light, which is brighter than its two components.

Like in painting, all colors of light can be made from mixing three primary colors. Do you know the primary colors for light? In painting, the three primary colors are yellow, blue, and red, but for light they are RED, GREEN, and BLUE.

Red and green light make yellow light. Green and blue light make cyan light. Blue and red light make magenta light. What do you think Red + Green + Blue light make? What is the brightest color of light.

Mixing color lights is used in theatre performances to create a dramatic effect. It is also used in television and computer monitors to create the full range of colors that give you the colorful cartoons or video games that you see and play.

Ex. 2. :



Ex.3. :

1. Doyou like to mix colors?

2. What colors do you prefer to mix?


Ex.4. .


Ex.5. , :

1.I have just begun to translate the text.

2. We continue to study English.

3.The children like to play basket-ball.

4.The boy started to run.

5.She tried to open the window but couldnt.


Ex. 6. .


Ex.7. 䳺 䳿 :

1. Im thinking of (go) to Brazil.

2. You cannot live without (do) such stupid things.

3. He isnt good at (drive) his car.

4. He seems (know) everything about it.

5. Try to avoid (lose) your temper.


1. What is mixing colors?

2. Is it important in your work to mix colors?

Unit 10.Shape, Form, and Space

, .

Ex. 1. :

Here is a riddle. What do you, a stop sign, and a rubber ball have in common? You all exist inand are set off byspace. This is true of all objects. Some objects are recognizable because of their shape or form alone. Even without seeing the letters or the red color, you could identify a stop sign. You would recognize its octagonal shape. Even in the dark, you could identify a rubber ball.

You would feel its round form. Shape, form, and space are closely related.

In this lesson, you will learn about these elements and their special place in art.


  1. Monochromatic

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