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II. True or false?

1. Robert Noyce graduated from a prestigious university and gained engineering expertise before he devised the integrated circuit.

2. Robert Noyce was one of the pioneers of the computer industry.

3. The microprocessor influenced the world in ways that its inventors did not foresee and subsequently led to the invention of the integrated circuit.

4. Stephen Wozniak and Steven Jobs used the state-of-the-art technology developed by Robert Noyce when they devised the first personal computer.

5. When Wozniak designed the first model of the PC, he did not plan to market it to the general population.

6. Jobs did not want the PC to be as intimidating to the general public as previous computers were, so he insisted that it include features that were practical and attractive.

7. The Apple Computer company sold their computers to thousands of American schools at discounted rates, thereby introducing their product into the homes of millions of students.

8. Martin Alpert foresaw that the success of the first IBM personal computer was inevitable, so he bought the first two models and devised ways to change them.

9. Martin Alpert's wife was skeptical about the potential of her husband's technical innovations.

10. Alpert's interest in technology was more passionate than his interest in medicine.


III. Give a synonym for words in parentheses:

1. Steven Jobs and Stephen Wozniak (worked together) to (invent) the personal computer, and then produced it in a (temporary) production line in a garage.

2. Steven Jobs wanted to (advertise and sell) the personal computer to people who would use it in their homes, so he knew it could be neither (very large) nor (awkward).

3. Stephen Wozniak applied the (most up-to-date) (applied science) when designing the first personal computer, while Steven Jobs designed its (practical functions).

4. People seemed to be less (frightened) by computers when they were made in (soft) colors and were (easily understood by the average person).

5. Robert Noyce's (specialization) in computers was a result of his experience with the (first people) in the computer field while working at his first job.

6. Martin Alpert's wife was never (doubtful) about (the future possibilities) of Tecmar.

7. Martin Alpert studied the first IBM personal computer (with great love and emotion), and (by that means) he was the first innovator to (come forward) with (supplementary devices) for the computer.

8. Whereas some people (grow) as a result of competition, others are (threatened) by it.


IV. Some of the following statements describe an act of an entrepreneur (E), others describe an act of an inventor (I), and others could describe both titles (B). Identify each one and be prepared to explain your answer.

1. Alexander Graham Bell originated the first telephone.

2. Robert Noyce co-invented the integrated circuit and co-founded Intel.

3. In 1890 John Loud created the first ballpoint pen.

4. Robert Noyce's engineering expertise contributed to the develop­ment of the microprocessor.

5. Robert Noyce's financial investments helped build one pf the most successful companies in the Silicon Valley.

6. Steven Jobs had the original idea to market the first personal com­puter.

7. King С. Gillette designed the first disposable razor blade.

8. A Frenchman named Benedictus introduced the idea of making safety glass in 1903 after he discovered a chemical that held broken glass together.

9. Martin Alpert devised many new products for the personal computer.

10. Martin Alpert's wife managed his business and marketed his products.


V. Describe the relationship between each of the following pairs of words (antonyms, synonyms, neither):

massive/small skeptical/unfriendly
cumbersome/awkward potential/ability
expertise/innovation donate/loan
muted/bright collaborated/worked
anticipate/foresee Together
inevitable/avoidable genuine/insincere
venture/risk devise/invent


VI. Choose the word to complete each of the following sentences:

1. Whenever the inventor was working on an innovation, she (emerged from/withdrew to) her house because she didn't want to be disturbed.

2. The new computer program was (collaborated/devised) by the newest student in the class.

3. The executives bought a (cumbersome/portable) copy machine because they needed to take it to meetings.

4. The computer enthusiast devised a portable model that had several practical (applications/markets) for educators.

5. It was Wozniak's (expertise/skepticism) that made it possible for him to devise the first personal computer.

6. The government (loaned/donated) $100 million to the corporation, expecting it to be repaid with 12 percent interest.

7. The investors (anticipated/intimidated) the higher profits because of the activity in the stock market.

8. When computers are not working, it is (inevitable/avoidable) that work will be delayed.


VII. Cross out the one word that does not have the same meaning as the other three words:

1. Everyone liked the computer salesman because he was (genuine/ calculating/ sincere/ unaffected).

2. The corporation president (benefited/contributed/gave/donated) his services to the school of business.

3. The sudden decrease in sales was not (understood/ foreseen/ anticipated/ predicted), by anyone.

4. The corporate office of the manufacturing company was so close to the factory that the noise in the office was (muted/ vivid/ intense/ extreme).

5. There are many specialized (parts/ components/ contributors/ elements) in the -memory bank of a computer.

6. The software company has the (capacity/ extent/ potential/ ability) to employ 500 people.

7. After the young investor earned a million dollars, he was highly regarded for his financial (skillfulness/ wizardry/ good fortune/ aptitude).

8. The software engineer's (expertise/ intelligence/ proficiency/ mastery) was limited to one area.

9. The computer-game business (celebrated/ thrived/ prospered/ progressed) during the summer months.

10. They undertook their (venture/ risky undertaking/ challenge/ decision) after making careful calculations.


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TEXT I. THE EARLY YEARS | VIII. Construct other sentences in this pattern (compound adjectives)

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