Батьківський, громадянський рух в Україні закликає МОН зупинити тотальну сексуалізацію дітей і підлітків
Відкрите звернення Міністру освіти й науки України - Гриневич Лілії Михайлівні
Представництво українського жіноцтва в ООН: низький рівень культури спілкування в соціальних мережах
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ЛІВИЙ МАРКСИЗМ У НОВИХ ПІДРУЧНИКАХ ДЛЯ ШКОЛЯРІВ
ВІДКРИТА ЗАЯВА на підтримку позиції Ганни Турчинової та права кожної людини на свободу думки, світогляду та вираження поглядів
Modifications of Consonants and Vowels in Connected Speech.
1. Modifications of consonants in connected speech. Assimilation. Elision.
2. Modifications of vowels in connected speech. Reduction.
3. Sound adjustmentsin connected speech.
1. Modifications of consonants in connected speech. Assimilation. Elision. Language in everyday use is not conducted in terms of isolated, separate units; it is performed in connected sequencesof larger units, in words, phrases and longer utterances.
Consonants are modified according to the place of articulation. Assimilation takes place when a sound changes its character in order to become more like a neighbouring sound. The characteristic which can vary in this way is nearly always the place of articulation, and the sounds concerned are commonly those which involve a complete closure at some point in the mouth that is plosives and nasals which may be illustrated as follows:
1. The dental [t], [d], followed by the interdental [θ], [ð] sounds (partial regressive assimilation when the influence goes backwards from a 'latter' sound to an 'earlier' one), e.g. eigth, at the, breadth, said that.
2. The post-alveolar [t], [d] under the influence of the post-alveolar [r] (partial regressive assimilation), e.g. free, true, that right word, dry, the third room.
3. The post-alveolar [s], [z] before [ʃ] (complete regressive assimilation), e.g. horse-shoe ['ho:ʃʃu:], this shop [ðIʃʃ'ʃɔp], does she ['d٨ʃʃi:].
4. The affricative [t + j], [d + j] combinations (incomplete regressive assimilation), e.g. graduate ['græʤueit], congratulate [kən'græʧuleit], did you ['diʤu:], could you ['kuʤu:], what do you say ['wɔtƷu:'sei].
The manner of articulationis also changed as a result of assimilation, which includes:
1. Loss of plosion. In the sequence of two plosive consonants the former loses its plosion: glad to see you, great trouble, and old clock (partial regressive assimilation).
2. Nasal plosion. In the sequence of a plosive followed by a nasal sonorant the manner of articulation of the plosive sound and the work of the soft palate are involved, which results in the nasal character of plosion release: sudden, not now, at night, let me see (partial regressive assimilation).
3. Lateral plosion. In the sequence of a plosive followed by the lateral sonorant [l] the noise production of the plosive stop is changed into that of the lateral stop: settle, table, at last (partial regressive assimilation).
It is obvious that in each of the occasions one characteristic feature of the phoneme is lost.
The voicing valueof a consonant may also change through assimilation. This type of assimilation affects the work of the vocal cords and the force of articulation. In particular voiced lenis sounds become voiceless fortis when followed by another voiceless sound, e.g.:
1. Fortis voiceless/lenis voiced type of assimilation is best manifested by the regressive assimilation in such words as newspaper (news [z] + paper); gooseberry (goose [s] +berry). In casual informal speech voicing assimilation is often met, e.g. have to do ['hæf tə'du:], five past two ['faif past 'tu:]. The sounds which assimilate their voicing are usually, as the examples show, voiced lenis fricatives assimilated to the initial voiceless fortis consonant of the following word. Grammatical items, in particular, are most affected: [z] of has, is, does changes to [s], and [v] of of, have becomes [f], e.g. She's five. Of course. She has fine eyes. You've spoiled it. Does Pete like it?
2. The weak forms of the verbs is and has are also assimilated to the final voiceless fortis consonants of the preceding word thus the assimilation is functioning in the progressive direction, e.g. Your aunt's coming. What's your name? (partial progressive assimilation)
3. English sonorants [m, n, r, 1, j, w] preceded by the fortis voiceless consonants [p, t, k, s] are partially devoiced, e.g. smart, snake, tray, quick, twins, play, pride (partial progressive assimilation).
Lip positionmay be affected by the accommodation, the interchange of consonant + vowel type. Labialisation of consonants is traced under the influence of the neighbouring back vowels (accommodation), e.g. pool, moon, rude, soon, who, cool, etc. It is possible to speak about the spread lip position of consonants followed or preceded by front vowels [i:], [i], e.g. tea – beat; meet – team; feat – leaf, keep – leak; sit – miss.
The position of the soft palateis also involved in the accommodation. Slight nasalization as the result of prolonged lowering of the soft palate is sometimes traced in vowels under the influence of the neighbouring sonants [m] and [n], e.g. and, morning, men, come in (accommodation).
Elision or complete loss of sounds, both vowels and consonants, is observed in the structure of English words. It is typical of rapid colloquial speech and marks the following sounds:
1. Loss of [h] in personal and possessive pronouns he, his, her, him and the forms of the auxiliary verb have, has, had is widespread, e.g. What has he done? ['wɔt əziˎd٨n].
2.  tends to be lost when preceded by [ɔ:], e.g. always ['ɔ:wiz], already [ɔ:'redi], all right [ɔ:'rait].
3. Alveolar plosives are often elided in case the cluster is followed by another consonant, e.g. next day ['neks 'dei], just one [' ʤ٨s 'w٨n], mashed potatoes ['mæʃ рə'teitəuz]. If a vowel follows, the consonant remains, e.g. first of all, passed in time. Whole syllables may be elided in rapid speech: library ['laibri], literary ['litri].
Examples of historical elision are also known. They are initial consonants in write, know, knight, the medial consonant [t] in fasten, listen, whistle, castle.
While the elision is a very common process in connected speech, we also occasionally find sounds being inserted. When a word which ends in a vowel is followed by another word beginning with a vowel, the so-called intrusive "r" is sometimes pronounced between the vowels, e.g. Asia and Africa ['ei ʃ ər ənd 'æfrikə] the idea of it [ði:ai'diər əvit] ma and pa ['mа:r ənd 'pa:] The so-called linking 'r', is a common example of insertion, e.g. clearer, a teacher of English.
When the word-final vowel is a diphthong which glides to [i] such as [ai], [ei] the palatal sonorant [j] tends to be inserted, e.g. saying ['seijiŋ]; trying ['traiiŋ]. In case of the [U]-gliding diphthongs [əu], [au] the bilabial sonorant [w] is sometimes inserted, e.g. going ['gəuwiŋ], allowing [ə'lauwiŋ].
The process of inserting the sonorants [r], [j] or [w] may seem to contradict the tendency towards the economy of articulatory efforts. The explanation for it lies in the fact that it is apparently easier from the articulatory point of view to insert those sounds than to leave them out.
The insertion of a consonant-like sound, namely a sonorant, interrupts the sequence of two vowels to make it a more optional syllable type: consonant + vowel. Thus, insertion occurs in connected speech in order to facilitate the process of articulation for the speaker, and not as a way of providing extra information for the listener.
The ability to produce English with an English-like pattern of stress and rhythm involves stress-timing(the placement of stress only on selected syllables), which in turn requires speakers to take shortcuts in how they pronounce words. Natural sounding pronunciation in conversational English is achieved through blends, overlapping, reduction and omissions of sounds to accommodate its stress-timed rhythmic pattern, i.e. to squeeze syllables between stressed elements and facilitate their articulation so that the regular timing can be maintained. Such processes are called coarticulatory/adjustment phenomenaand they comprise:
1. change of consonant or vowel quality,
2. loss of consonant or vowels, and even
3. loss of entire syllables: I must go [məssgəu] = vowel change and consonant loss; memory ['memri]= vowel and syllable loss; did you [diʤə] = consonant blending and vowel change; actually ['ækʃli] = consonant blending, vowel and syllable loss.
Syllables or words which are articulated precisely are those high in information content, while those which are weakened, shortened, or dropped are predictable and can be guessed from the context.
2. Modifications of Vowels in Connected Speech. Reduction. The modifications of vowels in a speech chain are traced in the following directions: they are either quantitative or qualitative or both. These changes of vowels in a speech continuum are determined by a number of factors such as the position of the vowel in the word, accentual structure, tempo of speech, rhythm, etc.
The decrease of the vowel quantity or in other words the shortening of the vowel length is known as a quantitative modification of vowels, which may be illustrated as follows:
1. The shortening of the vowel length occurs in unstressed positions, e.g. blackboard [Ɔ:], sorrow [зu] (reduction). In these cases reduction affects both the length of theunstressed vowels and their quality.
Form words often demonstrate quantitative reduction in unstressed positions, e.g.
Is →he or ̖she to blame? – [hi:]
But: At →last he has ̖come. – [hi]
2. The length of a vowel depends on its position in a word. It varies in different phonetic environments. English vowels are said to have positional length, e.g. knee – need – neat (accommodation). The vowel [i:] is the longest in the final position, it is obviously shorter before the lenis voiced consonant [d], and it is the shortest before the fortis voiceless consonant [t].
Qualitative modification of most vowels occurs in unstressed positions. Unstressed vowels lose their 'colour', their quality, which is illustrated by the examples below:
1. In unstressed syllables vowels of full value are usually subjected to qualitative changes, e.g. man [mæn] – sportsman ['spɔ:tsmən], conduct ['kɒndəkt] – conduct [kən'd٨kt]. In such cases the quality of the vowel is reduced to the neutral sound [ə].
These examples illustrate the neutralized (reduced) allophones of the same phonemes as the same morphemes are opposed.
Nearly one sound in five is either [ə] or the unstressed [i]. This high frequency of [ə] is the result of the rhythmic pattern: if unstressed syllables are given only a short duration, the vowel in them which might be otherwise full is reduced.
It is common knowledge that English rhythm prefers a pattern in which stressed syllables alternate with unstressed ones. The effect of this can be seen even in single words, where a shift of stress is often accompanied by a change of vowel quality; a full vowel becomes [ə], and [ə] becomes a full vowel. Compare: analyse ['ænəlaiz] – analysis [ə'nælisis].
2. Slight degree of nasalization marks vowels preceded or followed by the nasal consonants [n], [m], e.g. never, no, then, men (accommodation).
The realization of reduction as well as assimilation and accommodation is connected with the style of speech. In rapid colloquial speech reduction may result in vowel elision, the complete omission of the unstressed vowel, which is also known as zero reduction.
Zero reduction is likely to occur in a sequence of unstressed syllables, e.g. history, factory, literature, territory. It often occurs in initial unstressed syllables preceding thestressed one, e.g. correct, believe, suppose, perhaps.
The example below illustrates a stage-by-stage reduction (including zero reduction) of a phrase. Has he done it? [hæz hi· ,d٨n it] [həz hI ,d٨n it] [əz i ,d٨n it] [z i ,d٨n it].
3. Sound adjustments in connected speech. Sound adjustmentsin connected speech can be summarized as follows:
Answer the questions
1. According to what can English consonants be modified?
2. What is connected speech and what is its significance?
3. What does the ability to produce English with an English-like pattern of stress and rhythm involve?
4. What are coarticulatory / adjustment phenomena? Give examples.
5. What syllables are typically articulated precisely and what are weakened, shortened, or dropped in connected speech?
6. Speak on the typology of sound adjustments in connected speech.
7. What are the directions of modifications of vowels?
Література: [2, с. 66-84, 120-130; 4, c. 34 -46, 50-62].